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Table 2 Impact of hand-washing on parasite re-infection rates across children with different base-line demographic and disease characteristics (n = 365)

From: Associations between intestinal parasitic infections, anaemia, and diarrhoea among school aged children, and the impact of hand-washing and nail clipping

 Hand-washing vs. controlNail clipping vs. control
0.43 (0.24, 0.68)0.59 (0.36, 0.98)
GenderMale
150 (41%)
Female
215 (49%)
Male
150 (41%)
Female
215 (49%)
AOR (CI)aAOR (CI)aAOR (CI)aAOR (CI)a
0.41 (0.17, 0.97)0.39 (0.20, 0.75)0.34 (0.14, 0.82)0.79 (0.41, 1.51)
p = 0.923p = 0.131
Age6–9 years10–15 years6–9 years10–15 years
208 (57%)157 (43%)208 (57%)157 (43%)
0.30 (0.13, 0.66)0.50 (0.25, 1.01)0.50 (0.23, 1.09)0.66 (0.33, 1.31)
p = 0.338p = 0.604
Water sourcePipeline and boreholeWells and streamsPipeline and boreholeWells and streams
321 (88%)44 (12%)321 (88%)44 (12%)
0.44 (0.25, 0.76)0.08 (0.01, 0.68)0.68 (0.39, 1.17)0.09 (0.13, 0.64)
p = 0.134p = 0.053
Latrine useYesNoYesNo
139 (38%)226 (62%)139 (38%)226 (62%)
0.33 (0.13, 0.81)0.44 (0.23, 0.84)0.48 (0.20, 1.19)0.61 (0.32, 1.16)
p = 0.744p = 0.791
Mother educationLiterateIlliterateLiterateIlliterate
161 (44%)204 (56%)161 (44%)204 (56%)
0.58 (0.26, 1.30)0.28 (0.14, 0.58)0.83 (0.37, 1.85)0.42 (0.21, 0.84)
p = 0.198p = 0.207
Maternal age≤ 35> 35≤ 35> 35
193 (53%)172 (47%)193 (53%)172 (47%)
0.22 (0.09, 0.51)0.58 (0.28, 1.22)0.58 (0.21, 1.58)0.71 (0.25, 2.02)
p = 0.085p = 0.787
Family size≤ 6 members> 6 members≤ 6 members> 6 members
208 (57%)157 (43%)208 (57%)157 (43%)
0.27 (0.13, 0.54)0.69 (0.31, 1.55)0.60 (0.30, 1.17)0.53 (0.23, 1.20)
p = 0.082p = 0.814
House ownershipYesNoYesNo
307 (84%)58 (16%)307 (84%)58 (16%)
0.45 (0.26, 0.79)0.17 (0.03, 0.88)0.71 (0.40, 1.24)0.19 (0.05, 0.77)
p = 0.661p = 0.386
Baseline parasite infection statusYesNoYesNo
146 (40%)219 (60%)146 (40%)219 (60%)
0.48 (0.23, 1.01)0.31 (0.14, 0.67)0.44 (0.20, 0.97)0.69 (0.34, 1.43)
p = 0.048*p = 0.696
Baseline anemia statusYesNoYesNo
106 (29%)259 (71%)106 (29%)259 (71%)
0.59 (0.25, 1.39)0.32 (0.16, 0.64)0.54 (0.23, 1.26)0.60 (0.31, 1.15)
p = 0.577p = 366
Baseline BMI-for-ageThinNormalThinNormal
150 (41%)215 (59%)150 (41%)215 (59%)
0.33 0.15, 0.75)0.45 (0.23, 0.91)0.44 (0.20, 0.97)0.71 (0.36, 1.42)
p = 0.577p = 0.366
  1. CI 95% confidence interval, AOR adjusted odds ratio
  2. * Statistically significant at 0.05
  3. aAdjusted for intervention