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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics and clinical data of the sample

From: Anticholinergics and benzodiazepines on cognitive impairment among elderly with Alzheimer’s disease: a 1 year follow-up study

CharacteristicsN (%) or mean (SD)ACBZD
All (n = 133)Yes (n = 42)No (n = 91)Yes (n = 9)No (n = 124)
Age (year)78.38 (7.4)
Range (60–94)
77.88 (8.04)
Range (60–94)
78.60 (7.18)
Range (63–94)
79.67 (7.12)
Range 70–93
78.28 (7.48)
Range (60–94)
Sex, female80 (60.2)28 (66.7)52 (57.1)6 (66.7)74 (59.7)
Health privilege
 Universal coverage1 (0.8)1 (2.4)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (0.8)
 Government120 (90.2)39 (92.9)81 (89.0)9 (100.0)111 (89.5)
 Social1 (0.8)0 (0)1 (1.1)0 (0.0)1 (0.8)
 Others11 (8.3)2 (4.8)9 (9.9)0 (0.0)11 (8.9)
ICD-10 diagnosis
 F00022 (16.5)7 (16.7)16 (17.6)2 (22.2)21 (16.9)
 F00196 (72.2)31 (73.9)72 (79.1)6 (66.7)97 (78.2)
 Others15 (11.3)4 (9.4)3 (3.3)1 (11.1)6 (4.9)
Drugs used
 Anticholinergics42 (31.6)
 Benzodiazepines9 (6.8)
Comorbidity116 (87.2)41 (97.6)75 (82.4)8 (88.9)108 (87.1)
 Infection2 (1.5)1 (2.4)1 (1.1)0 (0.0)2 (1.6)
 Cancer2 (1.5)1 (2.4)1 (1.1)0 (0.0)2 (1.6)
 Hematology5 (3.8)2 (4.8)3 (3.3)0 (0.0)5 (4.0)
 Metabolic disease68 (51.1)22 (52.4)46 (50.5)4 (44.4)64 (51.6)
 Psychiatry18 (13.5)8 (19.0)10 (11.0)2 (22.2)16 (12.9)
 Neurology30 (22.6)12 (28.6)18 (19.8)0 (0.0)30 (24.2)
 Eyes and ears3 (2.3)1 (2.4)2 (2.2)0 (0.0)3 (2.4)
 Cardiovascular87 (65.4)28 (66.7)59 (64.8)5 (55.6)82 (66.1)
 Respiratory3 (2.3)2 (4.8)1 (1.1)1 (11.1)2 (1.6)
 Gastrointestinal4 (3.0)1 (2.4)3 (3.3)0 (0.0)4 (3.2)
 Skin0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Musculoskeletal23 (17.3)14 (33.3)9 (9.9)2 (22.2)21 (16.9)
 Genitourinary16 (12.1)4 (9.8)12 (13.2)0 (0.0)16 (13.0)
TMSE score
 Visit 118.56 (6.71)16.38 (7.39)19.72 (6.71)**15.80 (6.93)19.01 (6.87)
 Visit 218.97 (6.59)17.21 (6.71)19.49 (6.82)17.67 (6.16)18.78 (6.91)
 Visit 320.06 (5.54)18.26 (6.21)21.45 (4.86)**18.78 (6.91)19.88 (4.55)
 Visit 419.96 (6.74)16.96 (7.08)22.46 (5.69)**14.50 (9.22)20.80 (6.36)*
  1. AC anticholinergic, BZD benzodiazepine, SD standard deviation, ICD-10 International Classification of Disease—10th edition, F000 dementia in Alzheimer’s disease with early onset, F001 dementia in Alzheimer’s disease with late onset, TMSE Thai mental state examination
  2. * p < .05, ** p < .01
  3. Significant difference between group (χ2(1) = 11.04, p = .002)