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Table 1 Degree of association and level of agreement between average daily nutrient intakes by 24-h recalls/biomarkers and Dish-based food frequency questionnaires (DFFQs) (n = 161)

From: Validity and reliability of a dish-based semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for assessment of energy and nutrient intake among Iranian adults

Energy and nutrients (unit) Average daily intake Percent agreements Correlation coefficient between recalls/biomarkers and DFFQs
Recall(s) DFFQ(s) Same quartile (%)b (same and adjacent quartile)c Opposite quartiles (%)d Unadjusted Energy-Adjustede De-attenuatedf P. valueg
Mean SD Mean SD P. valuea Spearman’ r Spearman’ r Spearman’ r  
Energy (kcal/d) 1952.3 59.7 3397.4 1673.4 0.0001 41.2 78 3.1 0.49 0.53 0.0001
Protein (g/d) 62.8 19.4 106.4 51.9 0.0001 37.7 82.3 1.8 0.51 0.51 0.54 0.0001
Fat (g/d) 63.3 23.7 107.2 58.9 0.0001 37.5 82.5 6.2 0.45 0.35 0.48 0.0001
Carbohydrate (g/d) 288.4 92.5 324.9 193.6 0.23 33.5 78.4 5.6 0.36 0.17 0.39 0.0001
Dietary fiber (g/d) 13.5 5.6 46.7 28.4 0.0001 34.8 67.7 5 0.30 0.33 0.32 0.0001
Cholesterol (mg/d) 188.7 106.4 324.9 193.6 0.0001 37.3 75.2 5 0.40 0.29 0.41 0.0001
Thiamin (mg/d) 1.9 0.84 4.8 2.9 0.0001 33.9 82.6 2.5 0.50 0.51 0.54 0.0001
Riboflavin (mg/d) 9.5 116.9 2.1 1 0.0001 34.8 77.3 5.8 0.31 0.26 0.32 0.0001
Vitamin C (mg/day) 100.3 50.4 559.2 379.2 0.0001 33.5 70.8 8.6 0.24 0.24 0.26 0.002
Vitamin E (mg/day) 3.9 4.6 8.1 8.8 0.0001 30.3 69 5.8 0.23 0.21 0.24 0.004
Folate (μg/day) 217.1 146.2 438 199.1 0.0001 28.1 68.1 10.6 0.12 0.091 0.13 0.1
Calcium (mg/day) 623.8 259.5 1170.2 550.6 0.0001 41.8 76.1 3.7 0.43 0.41 0.46 0.0001
Iron (mg/day) 17.2 8.8 45.9 27.8 0.0001 33.5 80.3 3.1 0.44 0.42 0.47 0.0001
Zinc (mg/day) 10.8 11.1 43.8 58 0.0001 36.8 71.5 7.6 0.24 0.16 0.25 0.003
Biomarkers             
Retinol (mcg/day) 0.26 0.58 0.0001
Beta-carotene (mcg/day) 0.13 0.40 0.0001
  1. Only data of participants who had two FFQs and a minimum of three 24-h recalls were analyzed
  2. aPaired t test comparing DFFQ and Recalls in daily average intakes
  3. bPercentage of subjects in the same quartile of nutrient intakes from DFFQ1 and 6-day recalls
  4. cPercentage of subjects in the same and adjacent quartiles of nutrient intakes from DFFQ1 and 6-day recalls
  5. dOpposite (lowest/highest) quartiles
  6. eCalculated based on log-transformed value of average daily consumptions with adjustment for total energy intake using the residual method
  7. fCorrection were calculated based on energy-unadjusted correlation
  8. gFor all de-attenuated correlations, P < 0.001, except for Folate