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Table 1 Degree of association and level of agreement between average daily nutrient intakes by 24-h recalls/biomarkers and Dish-based food frequency questionnaires (DFFQs) (n = 161)

From: Validity and reliability of a dish-based semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for assessment of energy and nutrient intake among Iranian adults

Energy and nutrients (unit)Average daily intakePercent agreementsCorrelation coefficient between recalls/biomarkers and DFFQs
Recall(s)DFFQ(s)Same quartile (%)b(same and adjacent quartile)cOpposite quartiles (%)dUnadjustedEnergy-AdjustedeDe-attenuatedfP. valueg
MeanSDMeanSDP. valueaSpearman’ rSpearman’ rSpearman’ r 
Energy (kcal/d)1952.359.73397.41673.40.000141.2783.10.490.530.0001
Protein (g/d)62.819.4106.451.90.000137.782.31.80.510.510.540.0001
Fat (g/d)63.323.7107.258.90.000137.582.56.20.450.350.480.0001
Carbohydrate (g/d)288.492.5324.9193.60.2333.578.45.60.360.170.390.0001
Dietary fiber (g/d)13.55.646.728.40.000134.867.750.300.330.320.0001
Cholesterol (mg/d)188.7106.4324.9193.60.000137.375.250.400.290.410.0001
Thiamin (mg/d)1.90.844.82.90.000133.982.62.50.500.510.540.0001
Riboflavin (mg/d)9.5116.92.110.000134.877.35.80.310.260.320.0001
Vitamin C (mg/day)100.350.4559.2379.20.000133.570.88.60.240.240.260.002
Vitamin E (mg/day)3.94.68.18.80.000130.3695.80.230.210.240.004
Folate (μg/day)217.1146.2438199.10.000128.168.110.60.120.0910.130.1
Calcium (mg/day)623.8259.51170.2550.60.000141.876.13.70.430.410.460.0001
Iron (mg/day)17.28.845.927.80.000133.580.33.10.440.420.470.0001
Zinc (mg/day)10.811.143.8580.000136.871.57.60.240.160.250.003
Biomarkers            
Retinol (mcg/day)0.260.580.0001
Beta-carotene (mcg/day)0.130.400.0001
  1. Only data of participants who had two FFQs and a minimum of three 24-h recalls were analyzed
  2. aPaired t test comparing DFFQ and Recalls in daily average intakes
  3. bPercentage of subjects in the same quartile of nutrient intakes from DFFQ1 and 6-day recalls
  4. cPercentage of subjects in the same and adjacent quartiles of nutrient intakes from DFFQ1 and 6-day recalls
  5. dOpposite (lowest/highest) quartiles
  6. eCalculated based on log-transformed value of average daily consumptions with adjustment for total energy intake using the residual method
  7. fCorrection were calculated based on energy-unadjusted correlation
  8. gFor all de-attenuated correlations, P < 0.001, except for Folate