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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants (N = 419)

From: Medication adherence and survival among hospitalized heart failure patients in a tertiary hospital in Tanzania: a prospective cohort study

Characteristic All Poor adherence Good adherence p-value
(N = 419) (n = 313) (n = 106)
Age 46.4 (18.9) 45.5 (19.0) 49.1 (18.6) 0.09
Age groups
 < 30 103 (24.6%) 82 (26.2%) 21 (19.8%) 0.19
 30–50 129 (30.8%) 96 (30.7%) 33 (31.1%) 0.94
 > 50 187 (44.6%) 135 (43.1%) 52 (49.1%) 0.28
Sex
 Male 182 (43.4%) 139 (44.4%) 43 (40.6%) 0.5
 Female 237 (56.6%) 174 (55.6%) 63 (59.4%)  
Residence
 Urban 283 (67.5%) 197 (62.9%) 86 (81.1%) 0.001
 Rural 136 (32.5%) 116 (37.1%) 20 (18.9%)  
Marital status
 Single 100 (23.9%) 82 (26.2%) 18 (17.0%) 0.05
 Married 296 (70.6%) 213 (68.1%) 83 (78.3%) 0.05
 Divorced/widowed 23 (05.5%) 18 (05.7%) 5 (04.7%) 0.67
Education
 None 16 (03.8%) 12 (03.9%) 4 (03.8%) 0.96
 Primary 295 (70.4%) 248 (79.2%) 47 (44.3%) <0.001
 Secondary 68 (16.2%) 36 (11.5%) 32 (30.2%) <0.001
 University 40 (09.6%) 17 (05.4%) 23 (21.7%) <0.001
Occupation
 None 76 (18.1%) 47 (15.0%) 29 (27.3%) <0.01
 Employed/self-employed 311 (74.3%) 250 (79.9%) 61 (57.6%) <0.001
 Retired 32 (07.6%) 16 (05.1%) 16 (15.1%) 0.001
Body mass index 25.1 (05.2) 24.8 (04.2) 26.0 (07.4) 0.04
BMI categories
 Underweight 11 (02.6%) 7 (02.2%) 4 (03.8%) 0.37
 Normal 243 (58. 0%) 188 (60.1%) 55 (51.9%) 0.14
 Overweight 105 (25.1%) 79 (25.2%) 26 (24.5%) 0.89
 Obese 60 (14.3%) 39 (12.5%) 21 (19.8%) 0.06
Health insured
 Yes 93 (22.2%) 32 (10.2%) 61 (57.6%) <0.001
 No 326 (77.8%) 281 (89.8%) 45 (42.4%)  
HF etiology
 DCM 113 (27.0%) 78 (24.9%) 34 (32.1%) 0.15
 HHD 168 (40.1%) 134 (42.8%) 35 (33.0%) 0.08
 RHD 97 (23.2%) 72 (23.0%) 25 (23.6%) 0.9
 Others 41 (09.8%) 29 (09.3%) 12 (11.3%) 0.55
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 221 (52.7%) 171 (54.6%) 50 (47.2%) 0.19
 Diabetes 57 (13.6%) 39 (12.5%) 18 (17.0%) 0.24
 HIV/AIDS 28 (06.7%) 15 (04.8%) 13 (12.3%) 0.01
 Renal insufficiency 215 (51.3%) 163 (52.1%) 52 (49.1%) 0.59
  eGFR < 15 100 (23.9%) 80 (25.6%) 20 (18.9%) 0.16
 Anemia 302 (72.1%) 234 (74.8%) 68 (64.2%) 0.04
  Hb < 8 g/dL 99 (23.6%) 75 (24.0%) 24 (22.6%) 0.77
NYHA class
 II 30 (07.2%) 19 (06.0%) 11 (10.4%) 0.13
 III 153 (36.5%) 112 (35.8%) 41 (38.7%) 0.59
 IV 236 (56.3%) 182 (58.2%) 54 (50.9%) 0.19
Systolic functions
 Preserved (HFpEF) 135 (32.2%) 96 (71.1%) 39 (28.9%) 0.24
 Reduced (HFrEF) 284 (67.8%) 217 (76.4%) 67 (23.6%)  
Admission days 14.0 (13.3) 13.8 (13.4) 14.3 (12.8) 0.74
HF-related hospitalization
 1st 211 (50.4%) 167 (53.3%) 44 (41.5%) 0.04
 > 1 208 (49.6%) 146 (46.7%) 62 (58.5%)