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Table 1 Summary of challenges and recommendations for doing research with non-native English speaking participants

From: Critical methodological considerations in recruiting and engaging non-native English speaking workers with a head injury: a Canadian perspective

Ethical considerationsResearch hospitals in urban centers (serving multi-ethnic and lingual communities) provide the necessary resources (e.g., financial and human) to have certified site interpreters help in the recruitment on non-native English speakers to research studies by incorporating these costs into grant applications
Recruitment challengesProvide participants the opportunity to discuss their story and experiences with a mild wrTBI. Moreover, they were given an occasion to contribute other issues that were not examined during the interview to empower them and provide them with an opportunity to raise pertinent issues for the research team’s consideration and to seek help
Interview preparation and debriefingEstablishing an advisory panel of TBI survivors and advocates for injured workers that can provide feedback and suggestions about the interviews, particularly in dealing with vulnerable workers
Sex & gender considerationsSex and gendered considerations be incorporated when engaging with workers who are non-native English speakers and a vulnerable segment of the population
Language and cultural considerationsEarly and frequent engagement with the interpreters before the interview with the non-native English-speaking worker. The interpreter should be provided with the study material in advance including information about the study and the researchers’ expectations regarding their role, contribution, and understanding of the interview process. Furthermore, specific language including a discipline’s jargon (e.g., use of medical terminology) should be explained in advance to provide the interpreter with an opportunity to prepare before the interview