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Table 1 Frequency distribution of nurses’ knowledge score towards pressure ulcer prevention practice in public hospitals in central zone Tigray 2018 (N = 122)

From: Practice on pressure ulcer prevention among nurses in selected public hospitals, Tigray, Ethiopia

Nurses’ knowledge score of pressure ulcer prevention
Risk factors for PU development
 Risk factors for development of pressure ulcers are immobility, incontinence, impaired nutrition, and altered level of consciousness11392.697.4
 Hot water and soap may dry the skin and increase the risk for pressure ulcers6150.06150.0
 It is important to massage bony prominences7057.45235.2
Risk assessment for PU development
 All hospitalized individuals at risk for pressure ulcers should have a systematic skin inspection at least daily and those in long-term care at least once a week8267.24032.8
 The first sign of pressure ulcer development is open sore5444.36855.7
 All individuals should be assessed on admission to a hospital for risk of pressure ulcer development7964.84335.3
 A turning schedule should be written and placed at the bedside8368.03931.9
 A Braden scale is risk assessment tool used for assessing pressure ulcer7763.14536.8
Skin care to prevent PU
 Patient skin should be clean and dry to prevent risk of pressure ulcer development10082.02218.0
 Persons confined to bed should be repositioned every 3 h7158.25140.8
 Heel ulcer is prevented by putting pillow under the patient’s leg9174.63125.4
 A low-humidity environment may predispose a person to pressure ulcers6553.35746.7
 For persons who have incontinence, skin cleaning should occur at the time of soiling and at routine intervals8468.93831.2
Nutrition to maintain healthy skin
 Adequate dietary intake of protein and calories should be maintained during illness9880.32419.7
 Vitamin C and E are important to maintain skin integrity9779.52520.5
 Serum albumin test is the appropriate laboratory test for nutritional assessment of pressure ulcer patient7259.05041.0
Mechanical loading management
 The head of the bed should be maintained at the lowest degree of elevation no higher than a 30° angle consistent with medical conditions8468.93831.2
 A person who cannot move him or herself should be repositioned every 2 h while sitting in a chair.9376.22923.8
 Friction may occur when moving a person up in bed8468.93831.2
Educational program
 Educational programs may reduce the incidence of PUs9779.52520.5