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Table 2 Odds and 95% confidence interval for occurrence of the NAFLD in each quartile categories of snack consumption

From: Energy-dense nutrient-poor snacks and risk of non-alcoholic fattyliver disease: a case–control study in Iran

  Quartiles of total energy-dense nutrient-poor snacks P trenda
Q1 (n = 155) Q2 (n = 153) Q3 (n = 153) Q4 (n = 153)
Biscuits and cakes
 Model 1 Ref 0.53 (0.31–0.93) 0.73 (0.43–1.23) 0.97 (0.58–1.60) 0.213
 Model 2 Ref 0.56 (0.31–1.04) 0.74 (0.40–1.37) 1.21 (0.65–2.26) 0.037
Candies and chocolates
 Model 1 Ref 0.47 (0.28–0.82) 0.51 (0.30–0.86) 0.96 (0.51–1.40) 0.458
 Model 2 Ref 0.58 (0.316–1.05) 0.60 (0.31–1.15) 0.92 (0.85–0.99) 0.169
Salty snacks
 Model 1 Ref 0.65 (0.39–1.11) 0.79 (0.47–1.34) 0.87 (0.52–1.46) 0.507
 Model 2 Ref 0.67 (0.37–1.29) 0.72 (0.36–1.37) 0.85 (0.46–1.54) 0.424
Soft drinks
 Model 1 Ref 0.28 (0.15–0.56) 1.23 (0.81–2.16) 1.38 (0.82–2.32) 0.087
 Model 2 Ref 0.33 (0.16–0.68) 1.24 (0.67–2.30) 1.64 (0.82–2.65) 0.005
Total snacks
 Model 1 Ref 0.89 (0.51–1.58) 1.14 (0.66–1.98) 1.94 (1.16–3.26) 0.015
 Model 2 Ref 0.92 (0.48–1.77) 1.18 (0.63–2.19) 2.27 (1.19–4.31) 0.001
  1. Model 1: Crude
  2. Model 2: Adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (kg/m2), physical activity (MET-h/wk), alcohol, energy intake (kcal/day)
  3. aBased on multiple logistic regression model