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Table 3 Reasons provided for ‘Yes’ response to the open-ended questions

From: Managing acute pain in HIV+/AIDS patients: knowledge and practice trends among emergency physicians of major tertiary care centers of a developing country

‘Do you think management of pain is more complex in HIV-infected patients?’ (n = 42)
 1. Chronic pain due to other HIV/AIDS related problems921.4%
 2. Drug dependence/addiction leading to decreased response to routine doses511.9%
 3. Associated psychological issues511.9%
 4. Multisystem involvement/multiple problems1330.9%
 5. Immune deficiency37.1%
 6. Decreased pain threshold/need for higher doses49.5%
 7. No clear guidance available to healthcare professionals/decreased awareness37.1%
‘Do you think pain is under-reported and under-treated in HIV infected people?’
 1. It is considered a stigma in society, due to which HIV/AIDS is itself under-reported, and patients may avoid sharing the agony of their pain311.5
 2. Patients may be on regular pain killers at home due to longstanding ongoing pain conditions and do not inform about new onset of acute pain519.2%
 3. Failure to enquire specifically about pain by physicians on each visit and duly address it726.9%
 4. Patients often have multiple issues going on and come to hospital with HIV/AIDS related complications rather than for isolated pain management, therefore do not specifically report pain830.8%
 5. Generally pain is under treated in all patients with moderate to severe pain as physicians do not feel comfortable in using opioids; multiple analgesics are given to avoid using high doses of opioids311.5%