Skip to main content

Table 1 General characteristics of 10–12 years old students by FNLIT (Food and Nutrition Literacy) status in Tehran

From: Low food and nutrition literacy (FNLIT): a barrier to dietary diversity and nutrient adequacy in school age children

Demographic characteristicsTotalLow FNLIT ≤ 51Moderate/high FNLIT > 51p value*
N (%)N (%)N (%) 
 Sex800  0.46
  Male419 (52.4)52 (55.9)367 (51.9) 
  Female381 (47.6)41 (44.1)340 (48.1) 
 Grade800  0.26
  Fifth413 (51.6)43 (46.2)370 (52.3) 
  Sixth387 (48.4)50 (53.8)337 (47.7) 
 Birth order798  0.15
  < 2437 (54.8)44 (47.8)393 (55.7) 
  ≥ 2361 (45.2)48 (52.2)313 (44.3) 
 Father age tertile (year):790  0.47
  T1:30–40300 (38.0)38 (42.7)262 (37.4) 
  T2:41–45265 (33.5)25 (28.1)240 (34.2) 
  T3: ≤ 46225 (28.5)26 (29.2)199 (28.4) 
 Mother age tertile (year):794  0.20
  T1:23–35288 (36.3)34 (37.0)254 (36.2) 
  T2:36–40303 (38.2)41 (44.6)262 (37.3) 
  T3: ≥ 41203 (25.6)17 (18.5)186 (26.5) 
 Ethnicity797  0.99
  Fars441 (55.3)50 (54.3)391 (55.5) 
  Azeri228 (28.6)27 (29.3)201 (28.5) 
  Fars-Azeri56 (7.0)7 (7.6)49 (7.0) 
  Other72 (9.0)8 (8.7)64 (9.1) 
 School type800  0.78
  Public725 (90.6)85 (91.4)640 (90.5) 
  Private75 (9.4)8 (8.6)67 (9.5) 
 Family size797  0.140
  ≤ 3160 (20.1)15 (16.3)145 (20.6) 
  4465 (58.3)50 (54.3)415 (58.9) 
  ≥ 5172 (21.6)27 (29.3)145 (20.6) 
 Fa ther education789  0.45
  Illiterate to ≤ 5 years85 (10.8)12 (13.5)73 (10.4) 
  6–9 years up to diploma395 (50.1)47 (52.8)384 (49.7) 
  Associate’s degree or higher309 (39.2)30 (33.7)279 (39.9) 
 Mother education794  0.001*
  Illiterate up to ≤ 5 years86 (10.8)13 (14.1)73 (10.4) 
  6–9 years up to diploma461 (58.1)66 (71.7)395 (56.3) 
  Associate’s degree or higher247 (31.1)13 (14.1)234 (33.3) 
 Father job position690  0.11
  Worker106 (13.6)18 (20.5)88 (12.8) 
  Employee/clerk327 (41.4)36 (40.9)291 (42.2) 
  High rank employee139 (17.9)10 (11.4)129 (18.7) 
  Retired20 (2.6)4 (4.5)16 (2.3) 
  Self-manager186 (23.9)20 (22.7)166 (24.1) 
 Mother employment794  0.58
  Working630 (79.3)75 (81.5)55 (79.1) 
  Housewife164 (20.7)17 (18.5)147 (20.9) 
 Other income source of family members799  0.98
  No752 (94.1)84 (90.3)668 (94.6) 
  Yes47 (5.9)9 (9.7)38 (5.4) 
 House ownership status799  0.55
  Owner427 (53.4)49 (52.7)378 (53.5) 
  Tenant262 (32.8)32 (34.4)230 (32.6) 
  Mortgage35 (4.4)6 (6.5)29 (4.1) 
  Other75 (9.4)6 (6.5)69 (9.8) 
 Financial support source799  0.94
  No781 (97.7)91 (97.8)690 (97.7) 
  Yes18 (2.3)2 (2.2)16 (2.3) 
 Physical activity tertile (MET.h/day)787  0.31
  Mean T1: 33260 (33.0)36 (39.1)224 (32.2) 
  Mean T2: 38.37262 (33.3)25 (27.2)237 (34.1) 
  Mean T3: 47.71265 (33.7)31 (33.7)234 (33.7) 
 Z score for BMI800  0.16
  Thinness15 (1.9)4 (4.3)11 (1.6) 
  Normal381 (47.6)47 (50.5)334 (47.2) 
  Overweight213 (26.6)19 (20.4)194 (27.4) 
  Obese191 (23.9)23 (24.7)168 (23.8) 
 HH food security status746  0.33
  FS560 (75.1)59 (68.6)501 (75.9) 
  FI without hunger131 (17.6)19 (22.1)112 (17.0) 
  FI with hunger55 (7.4)8 (9.3)47(7.1) 
  1. HH household, FS food secure, FI food insecure
  2. *Significant at p < 0.05 for x2 tests