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Table 2 Adjusted Odd Ratios (95% CI) of Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) for FNLIT scale and its subscales in 10–12 years students in Tehran (n = 493)

From: Low food and nutrition literacy (FNLIT): a barrier to dietary diversity and nutrient adequacy in school age children

Dietary diversity score (DDS)
GroupsDDSFruitsDairiesProtein foods
ModelsUnadjusted relative risk ratio (95% CI)Adjusted relative risk ratio (95% CI)Unadjusted relative risk ratio (95% CI)Adjusted relative risk ratio(95% CI)Unadjusted relative risk ratio (95% CI)Adjusted relative risk ratio (95% CI)Unadjusted relative risk ratio (95% CI)Adjusted relative risk ratio (95% CI)
T1T2T1T2T1T2T1T2T1T2T1T2T1T2T1T2
 Low FFNL
  Yes2.19* (1.32, 3.62)0.85 (0.48, 1.52)2.25* (1.35, 3.76)0.88 (0.49, 1.56)3.88* (2.14, 6.99)1.68*(1.06, 2.67)3.90* (2.17, 7.00)1.72*(1.08, 2.74)9.60*(2.07, 44.58)6.88*(1.45, 32.65)9.80*(2.08, 46.11)7.13*(1.48, 34.26)0.98 (0.55, 1.74)0.98 (0.58, 1.64)0.98 (0.55, 1.74)0.98 (0.58, 1.64)
  No1111  1111111111
 Low IFNL
  Yes0.96 (0.61, 1.52)0.94 (0.58, 1.52)0.98 (0.62, 1.54)0.94 (0.58, 1.52)0.83 (0.47, 1.49)0.97 (0.65, 1.46)0.83 (0.46, 1.49)0.98 (0.65, 1.48)1.05 (0.47, 2.33)1.02 (0.44, 2.33)1.06 (0.47, 2.36)1.02 (0.44, 2.35)0.91 (0.52, 1.58)1.73*(1.07, 2.81)0.92 (0.53, 1.59)1.75*(1.08, 2.84)
  No1111111111111111
 Low FLL
  Yes1.81*(1.11, 2.94)1.32 (0.81, 2.15)1.71*(1.05, 2.79)1.33 (0.81, 2.16)1.07 (0.58, 1.99)1.39 (0.90, 2.15)1.06 (0.57, 2.05)1.32 (0.85, 2.37)2.01*(1.02, 3.98)2.16*(1.03, 4.50)1.98 (0.81, 4.86)2.05*(1.01, 4.36)1.64 (0.97, 2.76)2.14*(1.32, 3.45)1.61 (0.95, 2.73)2.06*(1.27, 3.34)
  No1111    1111  11
  1. Multinomial logistic regression, adjusted for mother education
  2. Only those variables that were significantly associated with FNLIT and its subscales were reported
  3. FNLIT Food and Nutrition Literacy, Cognitive subscales including: UFNI Understanding Food and Nutrition Literacy, NHK Nutritional Health Knowledge, Skill subscales including, FFNL, Functional Food and Nutrition Literacy, IFNL Interactive Food and Nutrition Literacy, FCL Food Choice Literacy, CFNL Critical Food and Nutrition Literacy, FLL Food Label Literacy
  4. *Significant at p < 0.05