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Table 2 Frequency categories of self-weighing, body weight changes, and healthy lifestyle behavior

From: Self-weighing frequency and the incidence of type 2 diabetes: post hoc analysis of a cluster-randomized controlled trial

Variables Reference Low frequency (< 2 times/week) Middle frequency (2–4 times/week) High frequency (5–7 times/week) P-value
Body weight changes, kg
 After 1-year intervention
  Intervention arm − 0.2 ± 2.4 − 0.6 ± 3.0 − 1.7 ± 3.0 − 2.6 ± 3.7 < 0.001
  Control arm − 0.3 ± 2.9 − 0.3 ± 2.9 − 1.1 ± 3.1 − 1.6 ± 3.6 < 0.001
 End of trial
  Intervention arm 0.0 ± 2.3 − 0.4 ± 3.1 − 1.4 ± 3.5 − 2.2 ± 3.8 0.025
  Control arm − 0.3 ± 3.2 0.0 ± 3.5 − 1.0 ± 3 .4 − 1.1 ± 3.8 0.002
Exercise habits,  %
 After 1-year intervention
  Intervention arm 51.2% 57.9% 64.4% 76.1% < 0.001
  Control arm 56.4% 59.2% 60.3% 71.2% < 0.001
 End of trial
  Intervention arm 51.9% 55.4% 63.3% 69.4% 0.020
  Control arm 54.1% 58.7% 58.5% 64.0% < 0.001
Vegetable intake (≥ 5 dishes),  %
 After 1-year intervention
  Intervention arm 0.7% 0.7% 3.2% 8.1% < 0.001
  Control arm 0.4% 0.7% 0.0% 0.6% 0.846
 End of trial
  Intervention arm 7.6% 8.8% 11.7% 19% < 0.001
  Control arm 3.9% 3.6% 6.2% 10.1% < 0.001
Moderate alcohol consumption (≤ 23 g of ethanol),  %
 After 1-year intervention
  Intervention arm 45.0% 44.6% 45.2% 44.9% 0.972
  Control arm 45.1% 39.1% 41.2% 43.6% 0.956
 End of trial
  Intervention arm 52.9% 47.7% 47.7% 47.8% 0.236
  Control arm 46.7% 44.9% 43.5% 47.5% 0.845
  1. Data are means (standard deviation) or percent (%).The mean follow-up period after the intervention was 3.1 years. Exercise habits were defined as achieving 10,000 steps and more. P values using the Cochran–Armitage test or Jonckheere-Terpstra test