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Table 1 General characteristics of study participants

From: Relationship between household food insecurity and food and nutrition literacy among children of 9–12 years of age: a cross-sectional study in a city of Iran

Variable HFI status p-valuea
Food-secure (n = 137) Food-insecure (n = 178)  
Age (year) 10.49 ± 1.02b 10.58 ± 0.98 0.44c
Sex
 Male 73 (45.1)c 89 (54.9) 0.56
 Female 64 (41.8) 89 (58.2)
Grade
 Fourth 50 (46.3) 58 (53.7) 0.73
 Fifth 43 (41.0) 62 (59.0)
 Sixth 44 (43.1) 58 (56.9)
BMI z-score
 Underweight 8 (40.0) 12 (60.0) 0.02*
 Normal 76 (42.0) 105 (58.0)
 Overweight 20 (33.3) 40 (66.7)
 Obese 33 (61.1) 21 (38.9)
Birth order
 1 81 (54.0) 69 (46.0) < 0.001*
 ≥ 2 56 (33.9) 109 (66.1)
Father age tertile (year)
 30–37 31 (40.8) 45 (59.2) 0.15
 38–44 69 (49.6) 70 (50.4)
 ≥ 45 36 (37.5) 60 (62.5)
Mother age tertile (year)
 23–34 43 (45.7) 51 (54.3) 0.56
 35–39 57 (46.0) 67 (54.0)
 ≥ 40 37 (39.4) 57 (60.6)
Father education
 ≤ 5 years education 2 (4.9) 39 (95.1) < 0.001*
 6 to 9 years or diploma 37 (26.4) 103 (73.6)
 Associate’s degree and higher 97 (75.2) 32 (24.8)
Mother education
 ≤ 5 years education 1 (3.4) 28 (96.6) < 0.001*
 6–9 years or diploma 38 (23.3) 125 (76.7)
 Associate’s degree and higher 98 (81.7) 22 (18.3)
  1. HFI household food insecurity, BMI body mass index
  2. *Significant at the level of p < 0.05
  3. a p-values obtained from Chi-square test unless indicated
  4. b Data are shown as Mean ± standard deviation
  5. c p-value obtained from Independent-samples t test
  6. c Data are shown as frequency (percentage)