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Table 2 Association between ECC in 3–5-year-old children and environmental performance indicators controlling for income level

From: An ecological study of the association between environmental indicators and early childhood caries

Indicators Model 1 Model 2
B (95% CI) P value ƞ2 B (95% CI) P value ƞ2
Environmental health indicators
 Household solid fuels − 0.05 (− 0.32, 0.23) 0.74 0.002    
 PM2.5 exposure − 0.02 (− 0.23, 0.19) 0.86 0.001    
 PM2.5 exceedance − 0.02 (− 0.26, 0.23) 0.88  < 0.0001    
 Sanitation 0.01 (− 0.37, 0.39) 0.96  < 0.0001    
 Drinking water − 0.14 (− 0.52, 0.24) 0.46 0.01    
 Lead exposure − 0.01 (− 0.33, 0.31) 0.95  < 0.0001    
Ecosystem vitality indicators
 Marine protected areas − 0.23 (− 0.60, 0.14) 0.22 0.03 − 0.05 (− 0.43, 0.33) 0.8 0.001
 National terrestrial biome protection 0.003 (− 0.20, 0.21) 0.98  < 0.0001    
 Global terrestrial biome protection − 0.01 (− 0.22, 0.19) 0.9  < 0.0001    
 Species protection index − 0.10 (− 0.34, 0.14) 0.42 0.01    
 Protected area representativeness index − 0.10 (− 0.33, 0.13) 0.39 0.01    
 Species habitat index − 0.28 (− 0.56, 0.006) 0.06 0.06 − 0.15 (− 0.48, 0.19) 0.39 0.02
 Tree cover loss − 0.16 (− 0.42, 0.10) 0.23 0.03 − 0.12 (− 0.41, 0.18) 0.43 0.01
 Fish stock status − 0.06 (− 0.28, 0.16) 0.6 0.005    
 Regional marine trophic index 0.13 (− 0.07, 0.33) 0.2 0.03 0.09 (− 0.11, 0.29) 0.39 0.02
 Total CO2 emission intensity − 0.22 (− 0.52, − 0.09) 0.16 0.03 − 0.07 (− 0.42, 0.28) 0.7 0.003
 CO2 Emission intensity – power − 0.10 (− 0.35, 0.15) 0.41 0.01    
 Methane emission intensity − 0.20 (− 0.47, 0.08) 0.15 0.04 − 0.34 (− 0.66, − 0.03) 0.03 0.09
 N2O emission intensity 0.24 (− 0.03, 0.51) 0.07 0.06 0.35 (0.04, 0.67) 0.03 0.09
 Black carbon emission Iiintensity − 0.06 (− 0.34, 0.21) 0.64 0.004    
 SO2 emission intensity − 0.15 (− 0.36, 0.07) 0.18 0.03 − 0.04 (− 0.29, 0.20) 0.71 0.003
 NOX emission intensity − 0.04 (− 0.26, 0.18) 0.72 0.002    
 Wastewater treatment − 0.005 (− 0.25, 0.24) 0.97  < 0.0001    
 Sustainable nitrogen management index − 0.09 (− 0.42, 0.24) 0.6 0.005    
  1. Model 1: including individual environmental performance indicators, one at a time, adjusted for income level; Model 2: including all environmental performance indicators, adjusted for income level; B: regression estimate, CI: confidence interval, ƞ2 = partial eta squared