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Table 1 Paternal medication taken around conception and births (singleton and alive), full term, pre-term, and with birth defects in Denmark for birth cohort 1997–2016: summary of data and results of logistic regression model

From: Risk of pre-term births and major birth defects resulting from paternal intake of COVID-19 medications prior to conception

Medication ATC code Births Full term Pre-term (%) Birth defect (%) Pre-term vs. full term Birth defect vs. not
1,201,131 1,087,841 86886 (7.40%) 38881 (3.20%) OR (95% CI) p-value Detectable ORb OR (95% CI) p-value Detectable ORb
Azithromycin J01FA10 7278 6721 557 (7.7%) 235 (3.20%) 1.01 (0.93–1.10) 0.77 1.13 0.98 (0.86–1.12) 0.76 1.19
Naproxen M01AE02 1895 1749 146 (7.7%) 63 (3.30%) 1.01 (0.85–1.20) 0.9 1.26 1.05 (0.82–1.35) 0.69 1.38
Losartan C09CA01 972 865 69 (7.40%) 43 (4.60%) 1.01 (0.79–1.29) 0.96 1.37 1.3 (0.96–1.77) 0.094 1.55
Dexamethasone H02AB02
S01BA01
S03BA01
907 838 69 (7.60%) 32 (3.50%) 1.05 (0.82–1.34) 0.72 1.38 1.11 (0.78–1.58) 0.57 1.57
Chloroquine P01BA01 849 789 60 (7.10%) 30 (3.50%) 0.98 (0.75–1.28) 0.89 1.39 1.32 (0.91–1.90) 0.14 1.59
Prednisone H02AB07 289 262 27 (9.30%) 9 (3.10%) 1.26 (0.85–1.87) 0.25 1.70 1 (0.51–1.94) 0.99 2.06
Hydroxychloroquine P01BA02 101 > 95a < 6a < 6a 0.38 (0.12–1.21) 0.1 2.22 1.22 (0.45–3.32) 0.7 3.00
  1. Exposure: male preconception three months
  2. Births, full term, pre-term, and birth defect columns contain counts and percentage in brackets
  3. Logistic model adjusted for age of mother, age of father, birth year, education and income of the father, smoking status of the mother. Birth defects additionally adjusted for gestation age
  4. aPrivacy regulations of Statistics Denmark do not allow publication of numbers smaller than 6
  5. bDetectable OR is the alternative hypothesis that can be detected with 80% power given the observed sample size and 2-sided 5% type I error rate without any adjustment of covariates
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