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Table 1 Characteristics of survey respondents by academic year

From: Lifestyle and psychosocial factors associated with maintenance of normal body mass index in college students: a cross sectional study

  All (n = 2781) Freshmen (n = 860) Sophomore (n = 636) Junior (n = 577) Senior (n = 694) P value4
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)  
Gender 0.17
 Male 855 (30.9) 274 (31.9) 168 (26.4) 192 (33.3) 220 (31.7)  
 Female 1883 (68.0) 577 (67.2) 459 (72.2) 380 (65.9) 465 (67.0)  
 Other5 31 (1.1) 8 (0.9) 9 (1.4) 5 (0.9) 9 (1.3)  
US born 0.13
 Yes 2602 (94.1) 811 (94.7) 604 (95.1) 529 (92.2) 655 (94.0)  
 No 163 (5.9) 45 (5.3) 31 (4.9) 45 (7.8) 42 (6.0)  
Race 0.02
 White 2212 (79.5) 656 (76.3) 506 (79.6) 472 (81.7) 576 (82.6)  
 Black/African American 107 (3.8) 41 (4.8) 23 (3.6) 18 (3.1) 25 (3.6)  
 Asians 201 (7.2) 80 (9.3) 54 (8.5) 30 (5.2) 36 (5.2)  
 Other 261 (9.4) 83 (9.7) 53 (8.3) 58 (10.0) 60 (8.6)  
No. of meals per day 0.63
 Less than 3 meals 1400 (50.4) 428 (49.8) 322 (50.7) 302 (52.4) 341 (48.9)  
 3 or more meals 1378 (49.6) 432 (50.2) 313 (49.3) 274 (47.6) 356 (51.1)  
Fast food consumption per week  < 0.001
 At least once 1550 (55.7) 407 (47.3) 324 (50.9) 357 (61.8) 456 (65.4)  
 Never 1231 (44.3) 453 (52.7) 312 (49.1) 221 (38.2) 241 (34.6)  
Sweetened beverages consumption  < 0.001
 At least once/week 2126 (76.4) 699 (81.3) 495 (77.8) 420 (72.7) 505 (72.5)  
 Never 655 (23.6) 161 (18.7) 141 (22.2) 158 (27.3) 192 (27.5)  
Alcoholic beverages consumption  < 0.001
 At least once/week 1655 (59.5) 385 (44.8) 365 (57.4) 362 (62.6) 536 (76.9)  
 Never 1126 (40.5) 475 (55.2) 271 (42.6) 216 (37.4) 161 (23.1)  
Tobacco products consumption 0.06
 Yes 597 (21.5) 207 (24.2) 129 (20.3) 127 (22.0) 130 (18.7)  
 No 2179 (78.5) 650 (75.8) 507 (79.7) 451 (78.0) 565 (81.3)  
Reported retrospective weight status upon starting the university 0.09
 Normal weight1 1734 (65.7) 550 (68.5) 387 (65.0) 346 (62.3) 446 (65.9)  
 Overweight/Obese1 753 (28.5) 208 (25.9) 181 (30.4) 177 (31.9) 183 (27)  
 Underweight1 152 (5.8) 45 (5.6) 27 (4.5) 32 (5.8) 48 (7.1)  
Current weight status 0.03
 Normal weight 1738 (64.1) 575 (68.8) 389 (63.3) 354 (62.5) 415 (60.6)  
 Overweight/Obese 842 (31.0) 218 (26.1) 198 (32.2) 187 (33.0) 234 (34.2)  
 Underweight 132 (4.9) 43 (5.1) 28 (4.6) 25 (4.4) 36 (5.3)  
Perceived weight change since starting at the university  < 0.001
I ncreased 947 (35.1) 187 (22.6) 198 (32.3) 204 (36.1) 358 (52.0)  
 Remained same 1126 (41.8) 452 (54.5) 246 (40.1) 237 (41.9) 191 (27.8)  
 Decreased 622 (23.1) 190 (22.9) 169 (27.6) 124 (21.9) 139 (20.2)  
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)  
Exercise (1–10; Never—daily) 5.3 (2.7) 5.4 (2.6) 5.3 (2.7) 5.3 (2.7) 5.4 (2.6) 0.81
Psychosocial well-being (1–10; low–high) 5.3 (1.4) 5.5 (1.4) 5.2 (1.5) 5.2 (1.5) 5.4 (1.4) 0.01
Retrospective BMI2 23.8 (5.1) 24.1 (5.1) 24.0 (5.2) 23.6 (5.2) 0.14
Current BMI3 24.1 (5.1) 23.6 (4.9) 24.1 (5.0) 24.3 (5.1) 24.5 (5.4) 0.01
  1. 1Categorized based on CDC classification guidelines Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/index.html; 2Retrospective BMI was computed from the participants’ reports of their weight when entering the university; 3Current BMI was computed from self-reported height and weight at the time of the study; 4represents significant differences across academic years using chi-square for categorical and one-way ANOVA for continuous variables; 5included students that identified as “other” gender