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Table 2 Prevalence ratios, confidence intervals, and p-values for comparisons of respondents’ self-reported handwashing and surface disinfecting, by demographic characteristics–Spring ConsumerStyles 2020

From: Handwashing and disinfection precautions taken by U.S. adults to prevent coronavirus disease 2019, Spring 2020

Characteristic Comparisona Washing hands often Disinfecting surfaces often
% vs. %a PR (95% CI) p % vs. %a 95% CI p
Gender Female vs. Male 94.5 vs. 92.1 1.03 (1.01, 1.04) .004 78.7 vs. 69.1 1.14 (1.10, 1.18) .001
Age 30–44 vs. 18–29 90.1 vs. 91.4 0.98 (0.95, 1.01) .392 73.4 vs. 69.6 1.05 (0.98, 1.13) .132
45–59 vs. 18–29 94.7 vs. 91.4 1.04 (1.01, 1.07) .022 77.2 vs. 69.6 1.09 (1.00, 1.19) .048
≥ 60 vs. 18–29 96.4 vs. 91.4 1.05 (1.02, 1.09) .001 74.9 vs. 69.6 1.08 (1.01, 1.15) .026
45–59 vs. 30–44 94.7 vs. 90.1 1.05 (1.03, 1.08) .001 77.2 vs. 73.4 1.05 (1.01, 1.10) .023
≥ 60 vs. 30–44 96.4 vs. 90.1 1.07 (1.05, 1.10) .001 74.9 vs. 73.4 1.05 (0.99, 1.12) .121
≥ 60 vs. 45–59 96.4 vs. 94.7 1.02 (1.00, 1.03) .037 74.9 vs. 77.2 0.97 (0.933, 1.01) .125
Income $25k–$49k vs. < $25k 92.9 vs. 86.4 1.08 (1.03, 1.12) .001 75.2 vs. 68.1 1.10 (1.02, 1.19) .010
$50k–$99k vs. < $25k 93.6 vs. 86.4 1.08 (1.04, 1.13) .001 73.9 vs. 68.1 1.12 (1.01, 1.23) .026
≥ $100k vs. < $25k 95.9 vs. 86.4 1.11 (1.07, 1.16) .001 75.8 vs. 68.1 1.11 (1.04, 1.19) .002
$50k–$99k vs. $25k–$49k 93.6 vs. 92.9 1.01 (0.98, 1.03) .520 73.9 vs. 75.2 0.98 (0.93, 1.04) .508
≥ $100k vs. $25k–$49k 95.9 vs. 92.9 1.03 (1.00, 1.06) .005 75.8 vs. 75.2 1.00 (0.93, 1.07) .984
≥ $100k vs. $50k–$99k 95.9 vs. 93.6 1.02 (1.01, 1.04) .010 75.8 vs. 73.9 1.03 (0.98, 1.07) .242
Education High school vs. < High school 91.7 vs. 84.7 1.08 (1.02, 1.15) .006 73.1 vs. 71.4 1.02 (0.94, 1.12) .595
Some college vs. < High school 95.0 vs. 84.7 1.12 (1.06, 1.19) .001 76.6 vs. 71.4 1.11 (0.99, 1.24) .074
≥ Bachelor’s degree vs. < High school 96.0 vs. 84.7 1.13 (1.07, 1.20) .001 73.5 vs. 71.4 1.03 (0.95, 1.12) .494
Some college vs. High school 95.0 vs. 91.7 1.04 (1.01, 1.06) .002 76.6 vs. 73.1 1.05 (1.00, 1.10) .054
≥ Bachelor’s degree vs. High school 96.0 vs. 91.7 1.04 (1.02, 1.07) .001 73.5 vs. 73.1 1.02 (0.96, 1.09) .535
≥ Bachelor’s degree vs. Some college 96.0 vs. 95.0 1.01 (0.99, 1.03) .210 73.5 vs. 76.6 0.96 (0.92, 1.00) .043
Race/Ethnicity Non-Hispanic Black vs. Non-Hispanic White 91.2 vs. 94.0 0.97 (0.94, 1.00) .080 79.6 vs. 72.8 1.09 (1.04, 1.15) .001
Hispanic vs. Non-Hispanic White  92.0 vs. 94.0 0.98 (0.95, 1.01) .141 77.9 vs. 72.8 1.07 (1.02, 1.13) .011
Multiracial/Other vs. Non-Hispanic White  94.5 vs. 94.0 1.01 (0.97, 1.04) .752 68.1 vs. 72.8 0.94 (0.86, 1.02) .120
Hispanic vs. Non-Hispanic Black  92.0 vs. 91.2 1.01 (0.97, 1.05) .679 77.9 vs. 79.6 0.98 (0.91, 1.05) .531
Multiracial/Other vs. Non-Hispanic Black  94.5 vs. 91.2 1.04 (0.99, 1.08) .117 68.1 vs. 79.6 0.85 (0.78, 0.94) .001
Multiracial/Other vs. Hispanic 94.5 vs. 92.0 1.03 (0.99, 1.07) .198 68.1 vs. 77.9 0.88 (0.80, 0.96) .005
Self-rated health Fair vs. Poor 90.0 vs. 75.2 1.20 (1.05, 1.36) .007 68.0 vs. 63.4 1.07 (0.90, 1.27) .418
Good vs. Poor 94.1 vs. 75.2 1.25 (1.10. 1.42) .001 74.0 vs. 63.4 1.17 (0.99, 1.37) .061
Very good vs. Poor 95.4 vs. 75.2 1.27 (1.12, 1.44) .001 76.6 vs. 63.4 1.21 (1.03, 1.42) .022
Excellent vs. Poor 92.4 vs. 75.2 1.22 (1.08, 1.40) .002 75.3 vs. 63.4 1.19 (1.00, 1.41) .046
Good vs. Fair 94.1 vs. 90.0 1.05 (1.01, 1.08) .011 74.0 vs. 68.0 1.09 (1.02, 1.16) .016
Very good vs. Fair 95.4 vs. 90.0 1.06 (1.02, 1.10) .001 76.6 vs. 68.0 1.13 (1.05, 1.20) .001
Excellent vs. Fair 92.4 vs. 90.0 1.03 (0.98, 1.07) .236 75.3 vs. 68.0 1.11 (1.02, 1.20) .018
Very good vs. Good 95.4 vs. 94.1 1.01 (1.00, 1.03) .134 76.6 vs. 74.0 1.04 (1.00, 1.08) .084
Excellent vs. Good 92.4 vs. 94.1 0.98 (0.95, 1.01) .273 75.3 vs. 74.0 1.02 (0.96, 1.09) .590
Excellent vs. Very good 92.4 vs. 95.4 0.97 (0.94, 1.00) .051 75.3 vs. 76.6 0.98 (0.92, 1.05) .596
Region Northeast vs. Midwest 95.4 vs. 93.8 1.02 (1.00, 1.04) .128 76.8 vs. 74.7 1.03 (0.98, 1.08) .301
West vs. Midwest 92.5 vs. 93.8 0.99 (0.96, 1.01) .265 70.9 vs. 74.7 0.95 (0.90, 1.00) .058
West vs. South 92.5 vs. 92.8 1.00 (0.97, 1.02) .788 70.9 vs. 74.4 0.95 (0.91, 1.00) .065
Midwest vs. South 93.8 vs. 92.8 1.01 (1.00, 1.03) .350 74.7 vs. 74.4 1.00 (0.96, 1.05) .843
Northeast vs. South 95.4 vs. 92.8 1.03 (1.01, 1.05) .013 76.8 vs. 74.4 1.03 (0.98, 1.09) .196
Northeast vs. West 95.4 vs. 92.5 1.03 (1.01, 1.06) .012 76.8 vs. 70.9 1.08 (1.02, 1.15) .005
Metropolitan status Metro vs. Non-metro 93.7 vs. 91.3 1.03 (1.00, 1.06) .082 74.6 vs. 70.2 1.06 (1.00, 1.13) .037
  1. PR: Prevalence ratio; CI: confidence interval
  2. aThe second category or number listed is the reference level for the prevalence ratio
  3. Italics indicates significant comparisons (p < .05)