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Table 1 Hydrochemical properties of water from Nyabarongo and Nyabugogo rivers, Rwanda

From: Physicochemical quality of water and health risks associated with consumption of African lung fish (Protopterus annectens) from Nyabarongo and Nyabugogo rivers, Rwanda

ParameterNyabarongo riverNyabugogo riverWHO guidelines [14]
Ruliba stationKirinda bridgeGiticyinyoni
Temperature (℃)22.6 ± 0.3023.0 ± 0.2622.5 ± 0.4025.0
pH8.15 ± 0.077.96 ± 0.068.22 ± 0.036.5–8.5
Conductivity (μ/Scm)74.3 ± 3.8420.0 ± 0.15102.0 ± 1.01000
TDS (mg/L)39.0 ± 2.010.0 ± 0.0152.9 ± 0.362000
Total nitrogen (mg/L)1.62 ± 0.021.56 ± 0.00112.81 ± 9.513.0
Nitrite nitrogen (mg/L)0.01 ± 0.000.017 ± 0.020.014 ± 0.0030.1
Nitrate nitrogen (mg/L)0.40 ± 0.011.39 ± 0.011.07 ± 0.05810
Ammoniacal nitrogen (mg/L)0.153 ± 0.0150.117 ± 0.010.12 ± 0.0060.5
Sulphates (mg/L)0.58 ± 0.0170.270 ± 0.020.86 ± 0.031000
Phosphates (mg/L)0.42 ± 0.010.21 ± 0.020.39 ± 0.0585.0
Fe (mg/L)1.61 ± 0.030.63 ± 0.021.57 ± 0.020.3
Mn (mg/L)0.53 ± 0.0020.02 ± 0.0020.49 ± 0.030.1
Cu (mg/L)0.24 ± 0.02BDL0.29 ± 0.0580.5
Zn (mg/L)BDL0.09 ± 0.010.43 ± 0.0583.0
Cr (mg/L)BDL0.06 ± 0.0020.15 ± 0.000.05
Cd (mg/L)0.106 ± 0.002BDLBDL0.01
Pb (mg/L)0.051 ± 0.010.75 ± 0.020.59 ± 0.0580.01
  1. BDL below method detection limit
  2. Values in italics indicate exceedance of WHO limits
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