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Table 3 Estimated daily doses through dermal contact and ingestion of water and consumption of P. annectens

From: Physicochemical quality of water and health risks associated with consumption of African lung fish (Protopterus annectens) from Nyabarongo and Nyabugogo rivers, Rwanda

IndicesGroupSampling pointFeMnCuZnCrCdPb
ADDIng (mg/L/day)AdultsRuliba station3.64E−071.86E−078.40E−08NANA3.71E−081.79E−08
Kirinda bridge2.21E−077.00E−09NA3.15E−082.10E−08NA2.63E−07
Giticyinyoni5.50E−071.72E−071.02E−071.51E−075.25E−08NA2.07E−07
ChildrenRuliba station1.93E−076.36E−082.88E−08NANA1.27E−086.12E−09
Kirinda bridge7.56E−082.40E−09NA1.08E−087.2E−09NA9.00E−08
Giticyinyoni1.88E−075.88E−083.48E−085.16E−081.8E−08NA7.08E−08
ADD Derm (mg/L/day)AdultsRuliba station8.17E−052.69E−051.23E−05NANA5.38E−062.59E−06
Kirinda bridge3.20E−041.02E−06NA4.57E−063.05E−06NA3.81E−05
Giticyinyoni7.97E−052.49E−051.47E−052.18E−057.61E−06NA3.0E−05
ChildrenRuliba station6.01E−051.98E−058.94E−06NANA3.96E−061.87E−06
Kirinda bridge2.35E−057.46E−07NA3.36E−062.24E−06NA2.80E−05
Giticyinyoni5.86E−051.83E−051.08E−051.61E−055.60E−05NA2.20E−05
EDI (mg/kg/day)AdultsRuliba station4.54E−014.86E−011.50E−022.25E−012.46E−01NA7.19E−01
Kirinda bridge5.59E−015.04E−011.10E−027.4E−022.30E−01NA5.03E−01
ChildrenRuliba station1.816E01.945E05.90E−029.00E−019.85E−01NA2.88E0
Kirinda bridge2.236E02.014E04.30E−022.98E−019.20E−01NA2.01E0
Dermal reference dose (mg/L/day) [12]1.4E29.6E−011.2E−026.0E−026.0E−056.0E−055.25E−04
Oral reference dose (mg/kg/day) [11]7.0E−013.0E−014.0E−023.0E−011.5E01.0E−031.4E−01
  1. NA not applicable
  2. Values in italics are higher than the reference doses of the heavy metals