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Table 1 Physical characteristics and absolute and relative cross-sectional areas (CSA) of trunk and lower limb muscles in sprinters and non-sprinters

From: Trunk and lower limb muscularity in sprinters: what are the specific muscles for superior sprint performance?

  Sprinters Non-sprinters P value Cohen’s d
Body height, cm 175.4 ± 5.1 [174.0, 176.8] 174.6 ± 4.7 [173.2, 176.0] 0.613 0.16
Body mass, kg 66.0 ± 5.1 [64.6, 67.4] 66.4 ± 7.2 [64.1, 68.6] 0.798 0.06
Absolute CSA, cm2
 Rectus abdominis 8.7 ± 1.7 [8.2, 9.1] 6.8 ± 1.8 [6.2, 7.3]  < 0.001 1.13
 Lateral abdominal wall 28.3 ± 4.8 [27.0, 29.6] 23.5 ± 4.0 [22.3, 24.7]  < 0.001 1.07
 Erector spinae 25.4 ± 3.3 [24.5, 26.3] 22.3 ± 3.7 [21.1, 23.4]  < 0.001 0.91
 Psoas major 20.5 ± 2.7 [19.8, 21.3] 16.9 ± 2.5 [16.1, 17.6]  < 0.001 1.40
 Gluteus maximus 60.1 ± 7.2 [58.2, 62.0] 50.8 ± 5.8 [49.0, 52.6]  < 0.001 1.41
 Quadriceps femoris 77.1 ± 8.2 [74.9, 79.3] 75.6 ± 10.7 [72.2, 78.9] 0.427 0.16
 Hamstring 46.8 ± 6.7 [45.0, 48.6] 37.7 ± 7.2 [35.5, 40.0]  < 0.001 1.31
 Adductors 58.2 ± 6.3 [56.5, 59.9] 49.4 ± 8.4 [46.8, 52.0]  < 0.001 1.22
 Dorsiflexors 10.9 ± 1.2 [10.6, 11.2] 10.6 ± 1.5 [10.2, 11.1] 0.367 0.20
 Plantar flexors 50.5 ± 7.2 [48.5, 52.4] 44.3 ± 5.9 [42.5, 46.1]  < 0.001 0.92
Relative CSA, cm2/kg2/3
 Rectus abdominis 0.53 ± 0.09 [0.51, 0.56] 0.41 ± 0.10 [0.38, 0.44]  < 0.001 1.26
 Lateral abdominal wall 1.73 ± 0.27 [1.66, 1.80] 1.43 ± 0.21 [1.37, 1.50]  < 0.001 1.21
 Erector spinae 1.56 ± 0.18 [1.51, 1.60] 1.36 ± 0.18 [1.30, 1.42]  < 0.001 1.10
 Psoas major 1.26 ± 0.15 [1.22, 1.30] 1.03 ± 0.14 [0.99, 1.07]  < 0.001 1.58
 Gluteus maximus 3.68 ± 0.33 [3.59, 3.76] 3.10 ± 0.30 [3.01, 3.19]  < 0.001 1.82
 Quadriceps femoris 4.72 ± 0.42 [4.61, 4.83] 4.60 ± 0.45 [4.46, 4.74] 0.192 0.27
 Hamstring 2.86 ± 0.36 [2.77, 2.96] 2.29 ± 0.34 [2.19, 2.40]  < 0.001 1.62
 Adductors 3.56 ± 0.31 [3.48, 3.65] 3.01 ± 0.41 [2.89, 3.14]  < 0.001 1.55
 Dorsiflexors 0.67 ± 0.07 [0.65, 0.69] 0.65 ± 0.09 [0.62, 0.68] 0.291 0.24
 Plantar flexors 3.09 ± 0.37 [2.98, 3.19] 2.70 ± 0.29 [2.61, 2.79]  < 0.001 1.12
  1. Values are presented as Mean ± SD [the upper and lower limits of a 95% confidence interval]. The relative CSA was normalized to body mass to the two-thirds power. Bold values indicate significance differences (P < 0.05) between sprinters and non-sprinters