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Table 1 Comparison of the findings of other studies on the survival of bacteria on various inanimate surfaces under different environmental conditions

From: Bacterial survival on inanimate surfaces: a field study

Pathogen Methods and results Refs.
Surface Inoculum Environment Sampling Survival
PAE, EFA Polypropylene, polystyrene, glass and other specific surfaces n.m 18–21 °C; 40–70% RH wet and dry swabs, vortexed in NB or BPS or area was cut out and directly vortexed in BPS PAE: < 2 days
EFA: > 11 weeks
[43]
SAU, PAE, KPN, SMA, ECO (clinical isolates) Aluminum foil (dry), aqua dest., tap water Aluminum:
log 6.4–7.3/cm2
Aqua dest.:
log 2.8–3.7/mL
tap water:
log 3.3–3.9/mL
Aluminum:
RT; 40–50% RH
Aqua dest:
RT
Tap Water:
RT; 30 °C, 40 °C
Aluminum:
Foil was put in NB; serial dilution; plateled on agar plates
Water samples: directly plated on agar plates
Aluminum: SAU, KPN, SMA, ECO: ≥ 25 days
   PAE: < 2 days
   Aqua dest: SAU: < 5 days
   PAE: < 4 days
   SMA: ≥ 25 days
   ECO: < 24 days
Tap water: SAU: < 7 days (RT), < 2d (30 °C, 40 °C)
   PAE: ≥ 12 days
   ECO: ≥ 12 days (RT), < 5 days (30 °C), < 1d (40 °C)
   SMA: ≥ 12 days (RT), < 7 days (30 °C), < 2 days (40 °C)
[44]
SAU, PAE, ECO Dust 106 CFU in NB diluted with aqua dest 0%, 32%, 42%, 58%, 99% Culture of samples on China blue lactose agar SAU: 0.6–5.4 m (> 0% RH); > 7.6 m (0% RH)
   PAE: 5.7–11.9 m (< 99% RH); > 16.9 m (99% RH)
   ECO: 4.5–11.8 m
[45]
ABA (clinical isolates and type strains) Glas coverslips 2 × 107 CFU in 20 µL of bovine serum albumin or distilled water 22 °C; 10%, 31%, 93% Coverslips were vortexted in sterile distilled water 30 days (clinical strain)
2 days (ATCC strain)
60 days (suspended in bovine serum albumin)
11 days (suspended in distilled water)
11 days (31% RH)
4 days (10% RH)
[46]
SAU, PAE, ECO (type strains) Polymer w/o silver-impregnated  ≥ 106–107 CFU dry/liquid inoculum 37 °C; humid chamber Neutralizing silver by TSB and horse serum, dilution on agar, filtration on cellulose nitrate membrane SAU: ≤ 7 days (dry inoculum); > 7 days (liquid inoculum)
   PAE: ≥ 7 days (better survival in liquid inoculum)
   ECO: ≤ 7 days (data for dry inoculum only available)
[47]
PAE, KPN, SMA, ECO (clinical and environmental strains) Different textiles such as cotton, polyester and polyethylene 102 CFU
104–105 CFU
22.5–26.2 °C
20–49% RH
Incubation in thioglycolate bouillon PAE: < 1 h-–7 h (inoculum 102 CFU)
   2 h–7 days (inoculum 104–105 CFU)
KPN: 1–3 days (inoculum 102 CFU)
   4–32 days (inoculum 104–105 CFU)
SMA: < 1–2 h (inoculum 102 CFU)
   12 h–10 days (inoculum 104–105 CFU)
ECO: < 1–8 h (inoculum 102 CFU)
   13 h–36 days (inoculum 104–105 CFU)
[6]
SAU (MRSA and MSSA), EFA (VRE and VSE) Different textiles (cotton, polyester, polyethylene, other) 4.1 × 105 CFU 22.9–24.5 °C; 30–49% RH Incubation in thioglycolate bouillon SAU: 1– > 90 days
EFA: 22–> 90 days
[7]
EFA (VRE; clinical isolates) Various environmental surfaces 102 / 104 CFU n.m Rodac contact plates Countertops (104 CFU): 7 days
Bedrails (104 CFU): 1 days
Telephone (102 CFU): 1 h
Stethoscope (102 CFU): 0.5 h
[48]
PAE (clinical, environmental, mucoid and non-mucoid strains) Sterile petri dish 5 × 106 CFU in saline on 6 cm2 n.m Sampling with moistened sterile cotton swabs, vortexed in NB, serial dilution, cultured on blood agar  ≥ 2 days (most mucoid and non-mucoid strains) [49]
SAU, PAE, KPN, ECO (laboratory strains and wild type) White laminate surface (soiled, clean) 3 × 102 CFU
in water or broth
30° C; 40–45% RH Tryptone soya agar contact plates Soiled: SAU ≥ 24 h (laboratory strain and wild type)
   PAE ≥ 24 h (laboratory strain)
   KPN < 24 h (wild type)
   ECO ≤ 24 h (laboratory strain and wild type)
Clean: SAU ≤ 24 h (laboratory strain and wild type)
   PAE ≤ 24 h (laboratory strain)
   KPN ≥ 24 h (wild type)
   ECO ≤ 24 h (laboratory strain and wild type)
[50]
SAU (MRSA:
clinical, outbreak, sporadic strains)
Bottels w/o dust 109 CFU in sterile PBS RT; conventional RH; dust protected Samples vortexted in PBS before incubation on sheep blood agar  > 6 m (w/o dust); longest survival in outbreak strains [51]
SAU (MSSA and MRSA) Bottels w/o dust 108 CFU in sterile PBS 22–27 °C; 27–45% RH; dust protected Samples vortexted in PBS before incubation on sheep blood agar MSSA: < 28 days (no dust); shorter with dust
MRSA: < 175 days (no dust); < 126 days (with dust)
[52]
SAU, PAE (type strains)
ABA (clinical isolate)
Enamel, formica, stainless steel 2.5 × 105 on 8 cm2 20–22 °C
60–70% RH
CLED agar contact plates
Enamel: swab moistened in sterile saline inoculated onto CLED agar
SAU: 3–10 days
PAE: 1–5 days
ABA: 6–12 days
[53]
ABA (clinical isolates and type strains) Ceramic, PVC, rubber, stainless steel 8 × 106 CFU 22 °C; 50% RH;
darkness; dust protected
Samples shaked in 0.9% NaCl, membrane filtration and serial dilution  ≥ 104 days (isolates from dry sources better than wet sources) [5]
EFA (VSE and VRE; clinical and environmental isolates) PVC 107 CFU 22 °C; 50% RH; dust protected Samples shaked in 0.9% NaCl, membrane filtration and or serial dilution 7 days—> 4 m [54]
ECO Glas “one McFarland suspension” 1:1 diluted in water, saline, sheep blood RT Samples vortexed in BHI  ≤ 70 days [55]
ECO (type strain) Stainless steel, copper, copper-containing alloys 107 CFU 4 °C and 20 °C Samples vortexed in PBS, serial dilution, pipetted onto nutrient agar  > 28 days (stainless steel; for both temperatures)
1.5 h (copper at 22 °C); 4.5 h (copper at 4 °C)
 < 2 h (copper nickel alloy at 20 °C); < 6 h (copper nickel alloy at 4 °C)
[56]