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Table 1 Major features and concerns of preventive health behavior-related interventions

From: Mental model-based repeated multifaceted (MRM) intervention design: a conceptual framework for improving preventive health behaviors and outcomes

Issues Category Key feature Concern/advantage
Approach Single Only one treatment Treatment effect wanes over time
Multifaceted Multiple treatments Persistent treatment effect
Frequency Single intervention One round Treatment effect wanes over time
Multiple intervention Several rounds Creates more persistent effect
Balance test Socioeconomic and demographic factors Income, wealth, age, sex, education Mental model or cognitive capacity-related factors are mostly absent
Treatment component Informational Information-based letter Less effective
Educational Education Effective but depends on the curriculum
Training Hands-on experience Effective but depends on the type and length of training
Financial In cash only Attractive but ineffective if stopped
Promotional In kind or service Highly effective with other treatments
Behavioral Weak or strong norm-based nudging Highly effective with other financial treatments
Mixed Both financial and behavioral More effective than either financial or behavioral alone
Time dimension Short-term Less than one year Treatment effects wanes over time
Medium-term One to five years long Better than short-term intervention
Long-term More than five years Creates a more persistent effect
  1. We reviewed water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)-related prevention health education and promotional interventions, (e.g., systematic reviews, empirical evidence) to explore the major features and concerns