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Table 1 Bivariate analysis of factors associated with the presence/absence of vasovagal syncope

From: Vasovagal syncope related to pain procedures in a pain clinic at a tertiary Lebanese hospital between 2016 and 2019

Variable Absence of vasovagal syncope (N = 94) Presence of vasovagal syncope (N = 94) p
Sex 0.884
 Male 48 (51.1%) 48 (51.1%)  
 Female 46 (48.9%) 46 (48.9%)  
Medical history (any disease) 0.374
 No 58 (61.7%) 52 (55.3%)  
 Yes 36 (38.3%) 42 (44.7%)  
Hypertension 0.854
 No 75 (79.8%) 76 (80.9%)  
 Yes 19 (20.2%) 18 (19.1%)  
Dyslipidemia 0.468
 No 77 (81.9%) 73 (77.7%)  
 Yes 17 (18.1%) 21 (22.3%)  
Diabetes 1
 No 86 (91.5%) 86 (91.5%)  
 Yes 8 (8.5%) 8 (8.5%)  
Other diseases 0.756
 No 89 (94.7%) 88 (93.6%)  
 Yes 5 (5.3%) 6 (6.4%)  
Beta blockers 0.044
 No 84 (89.4%) 91 (96.8%)  
 Yes 10 (10.6%) 3 (3.2%)  
ACE inhibitors 0.7
 No 91 (96.8%) 90 (95.7%)  
 Yes 3 (3.2%) 4 (4.3%)  
ARBs 0.516
 No 88 (93.6%) 90 (95.7%)  
 Yes 6 (6.4%) 4 (4.3%)  
Calcium channel blockers 0.246
 No 94 (100%) 91 (96.8%)  
 Yes 0 (0%) 3 (3.2%)  
SSRIs 0.516
 No 90 (95.7%) 88 (93.6%)  
 Yes 4 (4.3%) 6 (6.4%)  
Diuretics 0.246
 No 94 (100%) 91 (96.8%)  
 Yes 0 (0%) 3 (3.2%)  
Psychological state 0.077
 Calm 57 (60.6%) 45 (47.9%)  
 More or less calm 23 (24.5%) 38 (40.4%)  
 Anxious 14 (14.9%) 11 (11.7%)  
Infiltration status and occurrence of syncope < 0.001
 First time/repeat infiltration, no syncope 94 (100%) 0 (0%)  
 First time infiltration with syncope 0 (0%) 56 (59.6%)  
 Repeat infiltration and Ephedrine intake, no syncope 0 (0%) 15 (16.0%)  
 Repeat infiltration with syncope 0 (0%) 23 (24.5%)  
Age (in years) 45.28 ± 11.31 45.16 ± 11.42 0.944
Weight (in Kg) 79.16 ± 17.58 78.37 ± 15.37 0.744
Systolic blood pressure pre-procedure (mm Hg) 12.17 ± 1.63 11.11 ± 1.85 < 0.001
Diastolic blood pressure pre-procedure (mm Hg) 7.17 ± 0.90 6.79 ± 0.87 0.004
Systolic blood pressure per-procedure (mm Hg) 12.04 ± 1.45 9.32 ± 1.48 < 0.001
Diastolic blood pressure per-procedure (mm Hg) 7.14 ± 0.85 6.15 ± 0.88 < 0.001
Systolic blood pressure post-procedure(mm Hg) 12.09 ± 1.51 10.72 ± 1.62 < 0.001
Diastolic blood pressure post-procedure (mm Hg) 7.18 ± 0.86 6.68 ± 0.88 < 0.001
Heart rate pre-procedure (beats/min) 77.43 ± 9.63 75.98 ± 9.28 0.296
Heart rate per-procedure (beats/min) 77.02 ± 8.03 72.43 ± 10.90 0.001
Heart rate post-procedure (beats/min) 77.02 ± 8.13 75.79 ± 9.06 0.327
  1. Numbers in bold indicate significant p-values