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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics of 20 PLWH with normoglycemia and 19 PLWH with prediabetes

From: Effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention and the role of sleep in people living with HIV and prediabetes: a pilot and feasibility study

Characteristics Normoglycemia
(n = 20)
Prediabetes
(n = 19)
P value
Demographic and anthropometric parameters
Age (years) 51.8 ± 6.6 51.2 ± 5.5 0.767
Male gender, number (%) 13(65) 12(63.2) 1.00
Family history of diabetes, number (%) 4(20) 9(47.4) 0.096
History of smoking, number (%) 10(50) 6(31.6) 0.333
History of alcohol drinking, number (%) 16(80) 11(57.9) 0.176
Underlying diseases, number (%)    
 Dyslipidemia 9(45) 7(36.8 0.748
 Hypertension 4(20) 3(15.8) 1.00
 NAFLD 0 1(5.3) 0.487
 Cancer 0 0 NA
 Othersa 0 0 NA
BW (kg) 62.7 ± 12.8 63.2 ± 12.5 0.912
BMI (kg/m2) 23.1 ± 4.6 24.1 ± 4.1 0.500
SBP (mmHg) 130.5 ± 15.5 130.1 ± 14.7 0.935
DBP (mmHg) 81.3 ± 8.1 82.1 ± 10.9 0.781
WC (cm) 84.8 ± 10.8 85.3 ± 11 0.901
Neck circumference (cm) 35 ± 3.1 35.0 ± 4.0 0.947
HIV-related parameters
Duration of HIV infection (years) 15.2 ± 6.1 14.5 ± 5.5 0.729
Type of ART regimen, number (%)
 NNRTI-based
 PI-based
 Others
13(65)
7(35)
0
13(68.4)
6(31.6)
0
1.00
1.00
NA
Duration of ART (years) 11.5 ± 6.1 11.9 ± 5.3 0.843
CD4 cell counts (cells/mm3) 559.8 ± 264 455.7 ± 190.7 0.169
Metabolic and other biochemical parameters
FPG (mg/dL) 91.8 ± 7.9 99.1 ± 14.9 0.002
2 h-PG (mg/dL) 113.5 ± 40 153.6 ± 46.9 0.007
HbA1c (%) 5.32 ± 0.21 5.99 ± 0.23  < 0.001
Matsuda Index 3.29(1.73–5.41) 2.44(1.53–3.44) 0.160b
HOMA-IR 2.51(1.19–3.04) 3.66(1.74–6.02) 0.044b
Insulinogenic Index 0.79(0.11–1.52) 0.84(0.34–1.51) 0.901b
Disposition Index 2.65(0.29–5.32) 1.70(0.84–3.66) 0.550b
Alanine transaminase (U/L) 36.6 ± 18.5 38.8 ± 21.5 0.729
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 219 ± 42 204.3 ± 37 0.255
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 51.2 ± 11.6 46.8 ± 11.3 0.248
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 141.3 ± 36 130.6 ± 34.2 0.350
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 146.1 ± 90.8 166 ± 122.2 0.566
Sleep parameters
PSQI 5(3–7) 4(3–7) 0.607b
Sleep efficiency (%) 81.9(78.2–85.9) 84.0(77.6–87.8) 0.627b
Sleep duration (min) 338.5(316.3–367.5) 354.6(332.8–388.9) 0.283b
SD sleep duration (min) 52.9(33.9–72.6) 51.3(34.9–76.0) 0.708b
SD MSTc 0:42 ± 0:30 0:30 ± 0:18 0.123
  1. Data was presented as mean ± SD or IQR
  2. PLWH people living with HIV, BW body weight, BMI body mass index, NAFLD nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, ART antiretroviral therapy, NNRTI non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, PI protease inhibitor, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, WC waist circumference, FPG fasting plasma glucose, 2 h-PG 2-h plasma glucose, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, SD standard deviation, MST mid-sleep time
  3. aIncluding cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease and chronic kidney disease
  4. bMann Whitney U test
  5. ctime presented as 24-h clock time