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Table 2 Compared parameters at baseline, 6 months (at the end of the program) and 12 months in 13 PLWH with prediabetes

From: Effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention and the role of sleep in people living with HIV and prediabetes: a pilot and feasibility study

Characteristics baseline 6 months P value
(baseline and 6 months)
12 months P value
(baseline and 12 months)
Demographic parameters
Age (years) 52.9 ± 4.8     
Male gender, number (%) 8(61.5)     
Family history of diabetes, number (%) 7(53.8)     
History of smoking, number (%) 4(30.8)     
History of alcohol drinking, number (%) 8(61.5)     
Underlying diseases, number (%)      
 Dyslipidemia 4(30.5) 5(38.5) 0.317 5(38.5) 0.317
 Hypertension 2(15.4) 2(15.4) 1 2(15.4) 1
 NAFLD 1(7.7) 1(7.7) 1 2(15.5) 0.317
HIV-related parameters
Duration of HIV infection (years) 15.3 ± 4.9     
Type of ART regimen, number (%)      
 NNRTI-based 8(61.5) 8(61.5) 1 8(61.5) 1
 PI-based 5(38.5) 5(38.5) 1 5(38.5) 1
 Others 0 0 NA 0 NA
 Duration of ART (years) 12.7 ± 5.5     
CD4 cell counts (cells/mm3) 405.1 ± 157.0 466.6 ± 239.3 0.146 459.8 ± 238.2 0.213
Anthropometric parameters and physical activity
BW (kg) 63.5 ± 13.9 61.9 ± 14.0 0.012 62.0 ± 14.3  < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 24.3 ± 4.3 23.6 ± 4.3 0.014 23.7 ± 4.4  < 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 131.6 ± 16.2 122.3 ± 15.8 0.025 132.0 ± 16.9 0.901
DBP (mmHg) 82.9 ± 12.6 81.2 ± 9.8 0.531 82.3 ± 10.1 0.859
WC (cm) 85.4 ± 11.7 83.9 ± 12.5 0.110 82.9 ± 12.7 0.014
Neck circumference (cm) 35.1 ± 4.7 35.3 ± 4.4 0.568 34.2 ± 4.6 0.025
Physical activity (MET) 920 (60–2040) 1520 (420–3744) 0.173 840 (130–1060) 0.442
Metabolic parameters
FPG (mg/dL) 102 ± 16.4 96.5 ± 12.1 0.051 100.8 ± 21.7 0.684
2 h-PG (mg/dL) 151.5 ± 49.7 142.9 ± 47.3 0.406 141.1 ± 52 0.377
HbA1c (%) 6.00 ± 0.25 6.03 ± 0.41a 0.676 5.89 ± 0.37 0.103
Matsuda Index 2.53(1.45–5.33) 3.91(2.17–7.77) 0.311b 7.49(1.42–11.85) 0.064b
HOMA-IR 3.72(1.35–10.11) 1.41(1.10–4.44) 0.010b 1.51(0.44–4.10) 0.036b
Insulinogenic Index 0.84(0.39–1.90) 0.51(0.15–0.79) 0.055b 0.52(0.33–1.74) 0.972b
Disposition Index 1.70(0.88–4.26) 1.25(0.70–1.92) 0.152b 2.22 (0.83–5.52) 0.311b
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 208.4 ± 41.2 216.5 ± 48.7 0.420 208.8 ± 52.9 0.965
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 48.2 ± 11.4 52.5 ± 15.6 0.105 51.2 ± 17.1 0.258
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 130.5 ± 40.4 134.2 ± 44.6 0.682 134.0 ± 45.7 0.679
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 179.2 ± 145.6 166.1 ± 95.3 0.684 135.8 ± 60.9 0.274
Sleep parameters
PSQI 4.31 ± 2.98 3.08 ± 1.85 0.151 NA NA
Sleep efficiency (%) 83.34 ± 7.50 86.50 ± 5.73 0.048 NA NA
Sleep duration (min) 351.86 ± 44.37 363.85 ± 53.01 0.244 NA NA
SD sleep duration (min) 54.30 ± 23.62 47.99 ± 20.31 0.546 NA NA
SD MSTc 0:26 ± 0:13 0:34 ± 0:26 0.167 NA NA
Quality of life      
 EQ-5D-5L 0.977 ± 0.033 0.994 ± 0.014 0.143 0.945 ± 0.064 0.116
 VAS 81.08 ± 11.98 91.15 ± 9.61 0.012 83.46 ± 8.26 0.417
  1. Data was presented as mean ± SD or IQR; a, n = 12; b, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test; c, time presented as 24-h clock time
  2. PLWH people living with HIV, BW body weight, BMI body mass index, NAFLD nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, ART antiretroviral therapy, NNRTI non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, PI protease inhibitor, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, WC waist circumference, MET Metabolic Equivalents, FPG fasting plasma glucose, 2 h-PG 2-h plasma glucose, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, SD standard deviation, MST mid-sleep time, EQ-5D-5L the European Quality of Life Measure-5 Domain-5-Level, VAS visual analog scale
  3. an = 12
  4. bWilcoxon Signed Ranks Test
  5. cTime presented as 24-h clock time