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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of BATT study participants, Atlanta, Georgia 2016–2019 (N  =  132)

From: Latent tuberculosis infection among patients with and without type-2 diabetes mellitus: results from a hospital case-control study in Atlanta

Characteristics Controls N  =  34 Cases N  =  98 Total N  =  132 X2 p value
LTBI status
 Negative 29 (85.3) 89 (90.8) 118 (89.4) 0.35*
 Positive 5 (14.7) 9 (9.2) 14 (10.6)
Age group
 21–40 13 (38.2) 7 (7.1) 20 (15.2) < 0.01
 41–60 15 (44.1) 70 (71.4) 85 (64.4)
 > 60 6 (17.7) 21 (21.4) 27 (20.5)
Gender
 Male 17 (50.0) 42 (42.9) 59 (44.7) 0.47
 Female 17 (50.0) 56 (57.1) 73 (55.3)
Race/ethnicity
 Non-hispanic white 3 (8.8) 3 (3.1) 6 (4.6) 0.15*
 Non-hispanic black 27 (79.4) 91 (92.9) 118 (89.4)
 Hispanic 1 (2.9) 1 (1.0) 2 (1.5)
 Asian or pacific islander 1 (2.9) 1 (1.0) 2 (1.5)
 Other 2 (5.9) 2 (2.0) 4 (3.0)
Highest education
 Less than high school 8 (23.5) 18 (18.4) 26 (19.7) 0.15*
 High school graduate 15 (44.1) 60 (61.2) 75 (56.8)
 College/university 8 (23.5) 18 (18.4) 26 (19.7)
 Graduate school 3 (8.8) 2 (2.0) 5 (3.8)
Ever lived with TB-sick person
 No 33 (97.1) 89 (93.7) 122 (94.6) 0.67*
 Yes 1 (2.9) 6 (6.3) 7 (5.4)
 Not sure 0 3 3
Ever told to have positive TST
 No 32 (94.1) 85 (88.5) 117 (90.0) 0.51*
 Yes 2 (5.9) 11 (11.5) 13 (10.0)
 Not sure 0 2 2
Current smoking
 Daily 12 (35.3) 24 (24.7) 36 (27.5) 0.02
 Less than daily 6 (17.7) 5 (5.2) 11 (8.4)
 Not at all 16 (47.1) 68 (70.1) 84 (64.1)
 Don’t know/refused 0 1 1
Past smoking
 Daily 24 (70.6) 50 (51.0) 74 (56.1) 0.12
 Less than daily 3 (8.8) 10 (10.2) 13 (9.9)
 Not at all 7 (20.6) 38 (38.8) 46 (34.1)
Alcohol consumption
 Never 18 (52.9) 65 (66.3) 83 (62.9) 0.27
 Moderate 11 (32.4) 26 (26.5) 37 (28.0)
 Frequent 5 (14.7) 7 (7.1) 12 (9.1)
Ever diagnosed with high cholesterol level
 No 30 (88.2) 27 (29.4) 57 (45.2) < 0.01
 Yes 4 (5.8) 65 (70.6) 69 (54.8)
 Not sure 0 6 6
Ever diagnosed with high blood pressure
 No 22 (64.7) 28 (29.2) 50 (38.5) < 0.01
 Yes 12 (35.3) 68 (70.8) 80 (61.5)
 Not sure 0 2 2
Ever diagnosed with heart disease
 No 33 (97.1) 80 (84.2) 113 (87.6) 0.07*
 Yes 1 (2.9) 15 (15.8) 16 (12.4)
 Not sure 0 3 3
Ever diagnosed with liver disease
 No 32 (94.1) 90 (96.8) 122 (96.1) 0.61*
 Yes 2 (5.9) 3 (3.2) 5 (3.9)
 Not sure 0 5 5
Ever diagnosed with kidney disease
 No 34 (100.0) 88 (92.6) 122 (94.6) 0.19*
 Yes 0 (0.0) 7 (7.3) 7 (5.4)
 Not sure 0 3 3
Family members with T2DM
 No 7 (20.6) 29 (29.6) 36 (27.3) 0.31
 Yes 27 (79.4) 69 (70.4) 96 (72.7)
BMI
 Normal (18.5–25) 12 (35.3) 11 (11.2) 23 (17.4) < 0.01*
 Underweight (< 18.5) 0 (0.0) 3 (3.1) 3 (2.3)
 Overweight (25–30) 10 (29.4) 19 (19.4) 29 (22.0)
 Obese (≥ 30) 12 (35.3) 65 (66.3) 77 (58.3)
Glycated hemoglobin level
 Median (IQR) 5.4 (5.2–5.5) 7.3 (6.4–9.5) 6.7 (5.6–8.7) < 0.01
  1. Bold indicates that the finding is significant at α  =  0.05
  2. BMI body mass index; T2DM type-2 diabetes mellitus; IQR interquartile range; LTBI latent tuberculosis infection; TB tuberculosis; TST tuberculin skin test
  3. *p value obtained from Fisher’s exact tests