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Table 2 Crude and adjusted odds ratio of latent TB infection among BATT study participants, Atlanta, Georgia 2016–2019 (N  =  132)

From: Latent tuberculosis infection among patients with and without type-2 diabetes mellitus: results from a hospital case-control study in Atlanta

Characteristics LTBI status Total N  =  132 cOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
Negative N (%)  =  118 (89.4) Positive N (%)  =  14 (10.6)
Group
 Controls 29 (85.3) 5 (14.7) 34 (25.8) Reference Reference
 Cases (T2DM) 89 (90.8) 9 (9.2) 98 (74.2) 0.59 (0.19–2.04) 0.45 (0.13–1.71)
Age group
 21–40 19 (95.0) 1 (5.0) 20 (15.2) 0.59 (0.03–3.59) 0.40 (0.02–2.75)
 41–60 78 (91.8) 7 (8.2) 85 (64.4) Reference Reference
 > 60 21 (77.8) 6 (22.2) 27 (20.5) 3.18 (0.94–10.61) 3.09 (0.89–10.44)
Gender
 Male 52 (88.1) 7 (11.9) 59 (44.7) Reference Reference
 Female 66 (90.4) 5 (9.6) 73 (55.3) 0.79 (0.26–2.44) 1.09 (0.34–3.48)
Race/ethnicity
 Non-hispanic black 105 (89.0) 13 (11.0) 118 (89.4) 1.6 (0.28–30.4)  
 Other 13 (92.9) 1 (7.1) 14 (10.6) Reference  
Highest education
 Less than high school 22 (84.6) 4 (15.4) 26 (19.7) Reference  
 High school graduate 70 (93.3) 5 (6.7) 75 (56.8) 0.39 (0.10–1.71)  
 College/university 21 (80.8) 5 (19.2) 26 (19.7) 1.31 (0.31–5.93)  
 Graduate school 5 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 5 (3.8) N/A  
Ever lived with TB-sick person
 No 110 (90.2) 12 (9.8) 122 (94.6) Reference  
 Yes 5 (71.4) 2 (28.6) 7 (5.4) 3.67 (0.49–19.20)  
 Not sure 3 0 3   
Currently on metformin, among cases (N  =  98)
 No 23 (85.2) 4 (14.8) 27 (27.8) Reference  
 Yes 65 (92.9) 5 (7.1) 70 (72.2) 0.44 (0.11–1.92)  
 Missing 1 0 1   
Current smoking
 No 76 (90.5) 8 (9.5) 84 (64.1) Reference  
 Yes 41 (87.2) 6 (12.8) 47 (35.9) 1.39 (0.43–4.27)  
 Missing 1 1 2   
Past smoking
 No 44 (97.8) 1 (2.2) 45 (34.1) Reference  
 Yes 74 (85.1) 13 (14.9) 87 (65.9) 7.73 (1.46–142.75)  
Alcohol consumption
 Never 75 (90.4) 8 (9.6) 83 (62.9) Reference  
 Moderate 32 (86.5) 5 (13.5) 37 (28.0) 1.47 (0.42–4.74)  
 Frequent 11 (91.7) 1 (8.3) 12 (9.1) 0.85 (0.04–5.34)  
Ever diagnosed with high cholesterol level
 No 50 (87.7) 7 (12.3) 57 (45.2) Reference  
 Yes 62 (89.9) 7 (10.1) 69 (54.8) 0.81 (0.26–2.50)  
 Not sure 6 0 6   
Ever diagnosed with high blood pressure
 No 47 (94.0) 3 (6.0) 50 (38.5) Reference  
 Yes 69 (86.3) 11 (13.8) 80 (61.5) 2.50 (0.73–11.48)  
 Not sure 2 0 2   
Ever diagnosed with heart disease
 No 101 (89.4) 12 (10.6) 113 (87.6) Reference  
 Yes 14 (87.5) 2 (12.5) 16 (12.4) 1.20 (0.18–5.05)  
 Not sure 3 0 3   
Ever diagnosed with liver disease
 No 109 (89.3) 13 (10.7) 122 (96.1) Reference  
 Yes 4 (80.0) 1 (20.0) 5 (3.9) 2.10 (0.10–15.57)  
 Not sure 5 0 5   
Ever diagnosed with kidney disease
 No 108 (88.5) 14 (11.5) 122 (94.6) Reference  
 Yes 7 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 7 (5.4) N/A  
 Not sure 3 0 3   
Family members with T2DM
 No 29 (80.6) 7 (19.4) 36 (27.3) Reference  
 Yes 89 (92.7) 7 (7.3) 96 (72.7) 0.33 (0.10–1.03)  
BMI
 Normal (18.5–25) 19 (82.6) 4 (17.4) 23 (17.4) Reference  
 Underweight (<  18.5) 3 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (2.3) N/A  
 Overweight (25–30) 28 (96.6) 1 (3.5) 29 (22.0) 0.17 (0.01–1.26)  
 Obese (≥  30) 68 (88.3) 9 (11.7) 77 (58.3) 0.63 (0.18–2.52)  
Glycated hemoglobin level
 Median (IQR) 6.7 (5.6–8.6) 6.0 (5.3–9.2) 6.7 (5.6–8.7)   
  1. aOR adjusted odds ratio; BMI body mass index; CI confidence interval; cOR crude odds ratio; T2DM type-2 diabetes mellitus; IQR interquartile range