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Table 1 Descriptive data with mean ± standard deviation (SD). Section times were compared between pool lengths and race section using a mixed-design analysis of variance (ANOVA)

From: Swimming turn performance: the distinguishing factor in 1500 m world championship freestyle races?

  Short-course World championships
25 m pool length – Hangzhou 2018
Long-course World championships
50 m pool length – Gwangju 2019
  ANOVA
  Mean ± SD
95% CI
lower bound–upper bound
Mean ± SD
95% CI
lower bound–upper bound
  F-value p-value
Total start section time [s] 3.77 ± 0.16
3.66–3.88
3.77 ± 0.17
3.65–3.89
a) 18  < 0.001
Total swim section time [s] 558.12 ± 9.47 *
551.56–564.68
738.68 ± 9.47 *
732.35–745.01
b) 38859  < 0.001
Total turn section time [s] 303.14 ± 5.71 *
299.18–307.10
147.12 ± 5.71 *
143.58–150.66
c) 2569  < 0.001
Mean start section time [s] 3.77 ± 0.16
3.66–3.88
3.77 ± 0.17
3.65–3.89
a) 18976  < 0.001
Mean swim section time [s] 9.30 ± 0.16 *
9.19–9.41
24.62 ± 0.33 *
24.39–24.85
b) 46166  < 0.001
Mean turn section time [s] 5.14 ± 0.10 *
5.07–5.21
5.07 ± 0.18 *
4.95–5.19
c) 19079  < 0.001
  1. a) Main effect: pool length (short-course vs. long-course)
  2. b) Main effect: race section (start vs. turn vs. swim)
  3. c) Interaction effect: pool length x type of race section
  4. *significant difference between short- and long-course races (p < 0.05)