Skip to main content

Table 3 Potential factors that may influence the mental health condition and resilience of newly arrived refugees and migrants from Eritrea; conditions reported in one year follow-up (N = 48)

From: Mental health and resilience among Eritrean refugees at arrival and one-year post-registration in Switzerland: a cohort study

Parameters or indicators in follow-up (N = 48) Responses N %
Factors related to self-sustenance
 Current status of residence permit (legal status) B 12 25.0
F 8 16.7
N 28 58.3
 New residence permit within one year Yes 9 18.8
No 39 81.3
 Working, including unpaid work Yes 20 41.7
No 28 58.3
 Source of income Social assistance 46 95.8
Partial social assistance 2 4.2
 Monthly income: in Swiss Francs (CHF)¥  < 500.00 26 54.2
 ≥ 500 and < 1000 21 43.8
 ≥ 1000.00 1 2.1
Factors related to acculturation and settlement in the new host country
 Current language competency level (German) A1 7 14.6
A2 7 14.6
B1 14 29.2
B2 3 6.3
 Access to regular local language classes§ Yes 28 58.3
No 20 41.7
 Switzerland as a first choice of destination? Yes 29 60.4
No 19 39.6
 Other first-choice destination country, if applicable United Kingdom 12 25.0
Netherlands 3 6.3
Norway 2 4.2
Sweden 1 2.1
No idea 1 2.1
 Relative/s in Switzerland Yes 27 56.3
No 21 43.8
 Interaction with Eritrean community in Switzerland α Yes 41 85.4
No 7 14.6
 Community contribution in Switzerland β Yes 26 54.2
No 22 45.8
Factors related to pre-arrival in host country
 Migration journey duration (from Eritrea to Switzerland): in months  ≥ 3 and < 9 24 50.0
 ≥ 9 and < 15 10 20.8
 ≥ 15 and < 21 7 14.6
 ≥ 21 and < 27 4 8.3
 ≥ 27 3 6.3
Median (IQR)μ 8.5 7.0–16.0
 Duration of stay in Transit countries: in months
Median and Inter Quartile Range (IQR)μ
Ethiopia 3 1.5–5.0
Sudan 5 2.0–9.0
Libya 2 1.3–3.0
Italy 0.3 0.0
 Detention or prison experience during transit Yes 18 37.5
No 30 62.5
 Imprisonment in transit countries Egypt 1 2.1
Ethiopia 4 8.3
Libya 11 22.9
Sudan 2 4.2
 Experienced death of someone along the migration route Yes 28 58.3
No 20 41.7
  1.  = Current legal residence status of refugees and migrants; B → Refugee status granted; F → Temporarily admitted; and N → Asylum application in process
  2. ¥ = Monthly income: in Swiss Francs (CHF), for socially assisted immigrants, solely depends on the asylum status condition
  3. § = Similar to other benefits from the social system, access to regular local language courses, with few exceptional cases, is claimed to be affected by the asylum status of refugees
  4. α = Opportunities to have social interactions with compatriot Eritreans, such as social gatherings and hanging out together
  5. β = Willing to interact with the local population by participating in different activities, such as sports, feasts, and volunteering
  6.  = Could be a family member, relative, friend, or a travel colleague introduced on the journey
  7. µ = Figures in italics donate for Inter Quartile Range (IQR) values