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Table 2 Demographic characteristics of each sample

From: Lower objectively and subjectively assessed numeracy are both associated with poorer self-rated health

  ESP PIAAC
(N = 763) (N = 2609)
Gender*   
 Male 389 (51.0%) 1195 (45.8%)
 Female 374 (49.0%) 1414 (54.2%)
Age**   
 18–24 90 (11.8%) 368 (14.1%)
 25–44 239 (31.3%) 1060 (40.6%)
 45–64 274 (35.9%) 970 (37.2%)
 65 +  160 (21.0%) 211 (8.1%)
Education**   
 High school or less 173 (22.7%) 1106 (42.4%)
 Some college or associate's degree 216 (28.3%) 508 (19.5%)
 Bachelor's degree or higher 374 (49.0%) 995 (38.1%)
Income***   
 < $50 k 252 (33.0%) 984 (37.7%)
 $50 k–$100 k 259 (33.9%) 889 (34.1%)
 $100 k–$150 k 109 (14.3%) 411 (15.8%)
 $150 k +  143 (18.7%) 325 (12.5%)
Race   
 White 522 (68.4%) 1800 (69.0%)
 Black 98 (12.8%) 319 (12.2%)
 Other 143 (18.7%) 490 (18.8%)
Ethnicity***   
 Hispanic 118 (15.5%) 281 (10.8%)
 Non-Hispanic 645 (84.5%) 2328 (89.2%)
Self-rated health***   
 Poor 26 (3.4%) 62 (2.4%)
 Fair 126 (16.5%) 318 (12.2%)
 Good 275 (36.0%) 800 (30.7%)
 Very good 234 (30.7%) 932 (35.7%)
 Excellent 102 (13.4%) 497 (19.0%)
Numeracy scores   
SNS-3 score category 3–12 188 (24.6%)
  13–15 249 (32.6%)
  16–18 326 (42.8%)
PIAAC score category 0–175 126 (4.8%)
  176–225 448 (17.1%)
  226–275 909 (34.8%)
  276–325 858 (32.9%)
    326–375 252 (9.7%)
    376–500 16 (0.6%)
  1. *Signifies p < 0.05; **Signifies p < 0.01; ***Signifies p < 0.001
  2. Based on levels defined by PIAAC [27]