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Table 2 Two-level binary logistic regression of heavy episodic drinking

From: Problematic familial alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking among upper secondary students: a moderator analysis of teacher-rated school ethos

  Empty model Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Student level
 Problematic familial alcohol use
  No (ref.)   1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Yes   1.36** 1.12–1.65 1.36** 1.12–1.65 1.36** 1.12–1.65 1.38** 1.13–1.67
 Gender
  Boy (ref.)   1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Girl   0.77*** 0.67–0.88 0.77*** 0.67–0.88 0.77*** 0.67–0.89 0.77*** 0.67–0.89
 Family structure
  Two-parent household (ref.)   1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Other   1.38*** 1.20–1.58 1.38*** 1.20–1.59 1.38*** 1.20–1.58 1.38*** 1.20–1.59
 Parental university education
  No or not known (ref.)   1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  At least one parent   1.42*** 1.22–1.65 1.41*** 1.21–1.64 1.41*** 1.21–1.65 1.41*** 1.20–1.64
 Migration background
  ≥  10 years in Sweden (ref.)   1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  <  10 years in Sweden   0.31*** 0.22–0.44 0.31*** 0.22–0.44 0.31*** 0.22–0.44 0.31*** 0.22–0.44
School level
 Overall school ethos     1.16 0.96–1.39 1.15 0.94–1.40 1.19 0.97–1.45
 % students with parents with post-secondary education       1.00 0.99–1.01 1.00 0.99–1.01
 % students with a foreign background       1.00 0.99–1.01 1.00 0.99–1.01
Cross-level interaction
 Problematic familial alcohol use*         0.79* 0.65–0.97
Overall school ethos
 Intraclass Correlation (ICC) (%) 11.7*** 9.5***   8.9***   8.8***   8.7***  
  1. n  =  4709 students in 46 upper secondary schools
  2. ***p  <  0.001; **p  <  0.01; *p  <  0.05