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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants who had been hospitalized with COVID-19

From: Changes in patients’ outlook, behaviors, and attitudes toward COVID-19 after hospitalization and their experiences of discrimination and harassment

  All 1st wave 2nd wave
N n (%) M (SD) N n (%) M (SD) N n (%) M (SD)
Sex (male) 27 16 (59.3)   16 11 (68.8)   11 5 (45.5)  
Age 27   50.0 (17.8) 16   48.4 (15.2) 11   52.5 (21.6)
Known residence 26    15    11   
 Tamba City   0 (0.0)    0 (0.0)    0 (0.0)  
 Tamba Sasayama City   2 (7.7)    0 (0.0)    2 (18.2)  
 Others   24 (92.3)    15 (100.0)    9 (81.8)  
Occupation (medical or nursing care-associated professions) 24 2 (8.3)   14 2 (14.3)   10 0 (0.0)  
Living alone 25 6 (24.0)   15 2 (13.3)   10 2 (13.3)  
Reasons for undergoing polymerase chain reaction test 26    15    11   
Symptomatic patients without close contact with infected individuals   11 (42.3)    5 (33.3)    6 (54.6)  
 Patients who visited a cluster site   2 (7.7)    1 (6.7)    1 (9.1)  
 Patients who had a close contact with infected individuals   11 (42.3)    9 (60.0)    2 (18.2)  
 Others   2 (7.7)    0 (0.0)    2 (18.2)  
Symptoms present on admission 27 19 (70.4)   27 12 (75.0)   27 7 (63.6)  
 Fever 27 12 (44.4)   27 8 (50.0)   27 4 (36.4)  
 Cough 27 9 (33.3)   27 5 (31.3)   27 4 (36.4)  
 Sputum 27 6 (22.2)   27 2 (12.5)   27 4 (36.4)  
 Sore throat 27 4 (14.8)   27 2 (12.5)   27 2 (18.2)  
 Nasal discharge 27 1 (3.7)   27 0 (0.0)   27 1 (9.1)  
 Wheezing 27 1 (3.7)   27 1 (6.3)   27 0 (0.0)  
 Dyspnea 27 4 (14.8)   27 4 (25.0)   27 0 (0.0)  
 Chest pain 27 1 (3.7)   27 1 (6.3)   27 0 (0.0)  
 Myalgia 27 1 (3.7)   27 1 (6.3)   27 0 (0.0)  
 Arthralgia 27 2 (7.4)   27 1 (6.3)   27 1 (9.1)  
 Headache 27 7 (25.9)   27 3 (18.8)   27 4 (36.4)  
 Impaired consciousness 27 1 (3.7)   27 1 (6.3)   27 0 (0.0)  
 Physical lassitude 27 10 (37.0)   27 8 (50.0)   27 2 (18.2)  
 Abdominal pain 27 0 (0.0)   27 0 (0.0)   27 0 (0.0)  
 Nausea 27 4 (14.8)   27 3 (18.8)   27 1 (9.1)  
 Vomiting 27 0 (0.0)   27 0 (0.0)   27 0 (0.0)  
 Diarrhea 27 5 (18.5)   27 3 (18.8)   27 2 (18.2)  
 Taste disorder 27 7 (25.9)   27 4 (25.0)   27 3 (27.3)  
 Smell disorder 27 7 (25.9)   27 4 (25.0)   27 3 (27.3)  
Treatment administered 27 7 (25.9)   27 4 (25.0)   27 3 (27.3)  
 Antipyretic analgesics 27 7 (25.9)   27 4 (25.0)   27 3 (27.3)  
 Oral medicines for coronavirus 27 0 (0.0)   27 0 (0.0)   27 0 (0.0)  
 Inhalants for coronavirus 27 0 (0.0)   27 0 (0.0)   27 0 (0.0)  
 Oxygen therapy 27 1 (3.7)   27 1 (6.3)   27 0 (0.0)  
 Mechanical ventilation 27 2 (7.4)   27 2 (12.5)   27 0 (0.0)  
Length of hospital stay 27   10.4 (6.8) 16   11.8 (8.3) 11   8.3 (2.8)
Length of hotel stay for isolation 27   5.4 (7.6) 16   8.9 (8.2) 11   0.2 (0.6)
Period when the patients missed work or were unable to perform usual activities of daily living before hospitalization 24   5.8 (7.1) 14   6.1 (5.8) 10   5.4 (9.0)
Time that passed before being able to perform usual activities of daily living or resume work after returning home (from the hospital or the hotel for isolation) 25   9.4 (10.4) 15   10.9 (12.5) 10   7.2 (6.0)