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Table 1 Patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics

From: Relationship between spleen size and exercise tolerance in advanced heart failure patients with a left ventricular assist device

  All patients (n = 27)
Age, years 46 (37–55)
Male 21 (78)
BSA, m2 1.67 (1.59–1.76)
Etiology of heart failure
 Dilated cardiomyopathy 16 (59)
 Ischemic cardiomyopathy 7 (26)
 Dilated phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 1 (3.7)
 Post-myocarditis dilated cardiomyopathy 1 (3.7)
 Isolated cardiac sarcoidosis 1 (3.7)
 Lupus myocarditis 1 (3.7)
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 7 (26)
 Diabetes mellitus 5 (19)
 Dyslipidemia 7 (26)
 Atrial fibrillation 0 (0)
 COPD 0 (0)
Medical therapy
 ACEis/ARBs 21 (78)
 Beta-blockers 24 (89)
 MRAs 23 (85)
 Loop diuretics 17 (63)
Laboratory measurements
 Hemoglobin, g/dL 12.1 (10.6–13.4)
 Sodium, mEq/L 139 (137–140)
 Creatinine, mg/dL 0.82 (0.74–0.98)
 BNP, pg/mL 73.8 (51.9–165.8)
 hs-CRP, mg/dL 0.17 (0.09–0.43)
Echocardiography
 LVDD, mm 56.8 (47.5–64.1)
 LVEF, % 23.2 (12.0–34.1)
 E/e' 13.7 (8.1–17.3)
 Moderate or severe mitral regurgitation 2 (7.4)
Cardiac catheterization
 HR, beats/min 75 (69–81)
 Mean ABP, mmHg 76 (72–81)
 RAP, mmHg 6 (3–8)
 Mean PAP, mmHg 16 (13–18)
 PCWP, mmHg 9 (5–10)
 Total CO, L/min 4.6 (4.1–5.3)
 RVSWI, g m/m2/beat 4.1 (3.5–6.0)
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing
 Exercise time, min 7.0 (5.5–7.5)
 Workload, watts 73 (59–83)
 Rest HR, beats/min 76 (71–86)
 Peak HR, beats/min 130 (108–152)
 Rest SBP, mmHg 89 (81–94)
 Peak SBP, mmHg 107 (95–119)
 Peak VO2, mL/kg/min 13.2 (11.8–16.3)
 Peak RER 1.30 (1.21–1.41)
CT volumetry
 Spleen volume, mL 190 (148–221)
LVAD parameters
 Pump speed, rpm 8800 (8600–9200)
 Pump power, watts 6.0 (5.4–6.4)
 Pump flow, L/min 4.9 (4.3–5.4)
 Pulsatility index 5.6 (4.2–6.0)
  1. Data are presented as median (interquartile range) or n (%)
  2. ABP: aortic blood pressure; ACEis: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB: angiotensin receptor II blocker; BNP: brain natriuretic peptide; BSA: body surface area; CO: cardiac output; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CT: computed tomography; E/e': ratio of early transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic mitral annular velocity; HR: heart rate; hs-CRP: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; LVAD: left ventricular assist device; LVDD: left ventricular end-diastolic dimension; LVEF: left ventricular ejection fraction; MRAs: mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists; PAP: pulmonary artery pressure; PCWP: pulmonary capillary wedge pressure; RAP: right atrial pressure; RER: respiratory exchange ratio; rpm: revolutions per minute; RVSWI: right ventricular stroke work index; SBP: systolic blood pressure; VO2: oxygen consumption