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Table 2 Factors associated with EPDS positive screens for postpartum anxiety and depression (scores ≥ 10) and major depressive symptoms (scores ≥ 13) (n = 670)

From: Postpartum depression and associated risk factors during the COVID-19 pandemic

Risk factor  ≥ 10 EPDS score  ≥ 13 EPDS score
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Formula feeding 1.92** (1.23–3.00) 1.73* (1.06–2.79)
Age 0.96 (0.9–1.00) 0.98 (0.93–1.03)
NICU admission 1.74* (1.03–2.93) 1.26 (0.69–2.24)
Weeks postpartum 1.04* (1.00–1.09) 1.04 (0.99–1.09)
Race not white 1.20 (0.72–1.99) 0.97 (0.52–1.74)
Not married 0.98 (0.48–1.96) 1.93 (0.92–3.91)
COVID-19 infection worry for self and baby 1.71** (1.20–2.45) 1.46 (0.96–2.25)
Self-quarantine during pregnancy and/or postpartum 1.17 (0.74–1.86) 1.04 (0.62–1.81)
Exposure to COVID-19 (positive test self, member of household, or suspected self) 1.18 (0.40–3.30) 1.56 (0.48–4.46)
  1. The dependent in this analysis is a positive screen for postpartum anxiety and depression using the EPDS coded so that 0 = an EPDS score of 0–9 and 1 = an EPDS score of 10 or greater or a positive response to the item “The thought of harming myself has occurred to me.” Positive screen for major depressive symptoms was coded as 1 = EPDS score of 13 or more or a positive response to the item “The thought of harming myself has occurred to me.”
  2. * = p < .05, ** = p < .01