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Table 1 Open research practices and the career benefits they confer. Definitions are lifted from [43]

From: What senior academics can do to support reproducible and open research: a short, three-step guide

Open research practice Definition Competitive advantages
Open Access Publishing A scholarly output accessible to the public free of charge. This can include green, gold or platinum/diamond forms of open access. Open access can be applied to the following scholarly outputs: peer-reviewed journal articles, conference papers, theses, book chapters, monographs, and images Publishing via open access is associated with higher citation rates and improves the speed and breadth of dissemination of scholarly outputs [44, 45]
Open Data Publicly accessible, digitally-shareable data that are necessary to reproduce the reported results Facilitates collaboration [46]; increases efficiency and sustainability [47]; published papers linked with open data and/or materials are associated with a higher citation rate on average [23, 45, 48]; when published with a digital object identifier (DOI), open data and/or materials can be a citable publication [49]; synthetic datasets can help cross-validate analysis and improve reproducibility of analysis workflows [50]
Open Materials Publicly available components of the research methodology needed to reproduce the reported procedure and analysis (e.g., code, software, workflows, etc.)
Open Peer Review A findable, freely and publicly accessible, and signed peer review either pre- or post-publication Academics who act as reviewers can get credit for their work [51]
Preprints Complete, non-peer-reviewed manuscript entered in a time-stamped and publicly accessible location, usually an institutional or disciplinary repository (e.g., PsyArXiv, LawArXiv, UCL Press, MedrXiv). Preprints are often also submitted for peer review and publication in a traditional scholarly journal, but this is not mandatory Wider, faster, and cheaper dissemination of research [52]; greater opportunity for feedback outside of formal peer-review [24]; posting a manuscript as a preprint before formal publication can increase citations and impact [53, 54]; improves chances of publication in journals with high impact factors [55]
Preregistration A publicly available time-stamped study design and/or analysis plan that is registered in an institutional registration system (e.g.,, Open Science Framework, AEA Registry, EGAP) Boost a researcher’s reputation [56]; preventative measure against post-hoc critique (i.e., CARKing—critiquing after the results are known) during peer-review [39, 57, 58]; prospective registration of a study design can be a citable publication; comply with submissions guidelines set by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)
Registered Reports A peer-reviewed journal article where the decision to publish is based on a two-stage peer-review process. First, following successful peer-review, a pre-specified study and/or analysis protocol is accepted in principle by a participating journal before data has been collected or accessed. Second, providing the authors closely followed the protocol and successful peer-review, the final manuscript is published regardless of the results Guaranteed publication regardless of study results, providing the registered protocol and/or analysis is followed [59]; reduces CARKing [39, 57, 58]; cited at comparable or slightly higher levels than conventional peer-reviewed articles [60]; stage one peer-review provides additional peer-review feedback