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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants by treatment group

From: Text messaging interventions to support smoking cessation among hospitalized patients in Brazil: a randomized comparative effectiveness clinical trial

Variables Standard care
(control)
Sustained care (intervention) p
  M (SD) M (SD)  
Age (years) 45.97 (12.58) 45.45 (12.92) 0.701
Age at smoking initiation 18.70 (16.35) 16.09 (7.40) 0.001
  Md (IR) Md (IR)  
Importance of quitting (0–10) 10 (0) 10 (0) 0.844
Confidence to quit (0–10) 7 (5) 8 (5) 0.273
Withdrawal scale (0–4) 3 (4) 3 (4) 0.303
  N (%) N (%)  
Male 102 (51.3) 94 (47.2) 0.422
Ethnoracial group (self-declared) 0.511
 White 67 (36.2) 62 (33.0)  
 Black, grayish-brown/indigenous 118 (63.8) 126 (67.0)  
Education level 0.201
 0–4 years 5 (2.6) 1 (0.5)  
 5–8 years 78 (40.4) 75 (38.1)  
 More than 9 years 110 (57) 121 (61.4)  
 Married or whit a partner 61 (33) 58 (32.2) 0.878
SES1—average household income in dollars/month2 0.228
 SES A (USD 5.058) 1 (0.5) 0.0 (0.0)  
 SES B1(USD 2.241) 2 (1.0) 1.0 (0.5)  
 SES B2 (USD 1.175) 43 (21.1) 30 (15.0)  
 SES C1 (USD 655) 112 (56.3) 110 (55.0)  
 SES C2 (USD 393) 42 (21.1) 58 (29.0)  
 SES D + E (USD 186) 0 (0.0) 1.0 (0.5)  
Cigarettes/day 0.165
 < 10 81 (40.5) 94 (47.3)  
 11–20 72 (36.0) 83 (41.7)  
 > 21 47 (23.5) 22 (11.0)  
Time to first cigarette of the day 0.264
 After 60 min 34 (17.3) 52 (26.4)  
 Between 31 and 60 min 24 (12.2) 19 (9.6)  
 Between 6 and 30 min 61 (31.0) 43 (21.8)  
 The first 5 min 78 (39.5) 83 (42.2)  
 Nicotine dependence3 ≥ 5 168 (84.0) 179 (89.5) 0.105
 Quit attempts in past year 69 (34.5) 87 (43.5) 0.065
Life use quit medication 0.742
 NRT 32 (16.1) 34 (16.9)  
 Bupropion 15 (4.6) 15 (7.5)  
 Champix or Varenicline 2 (1.0) 0 (0.0)  
Commitment to quitting 0.711
 Plan to stay quit 118 (62.8) 125 (64.4)  
 Plan to try to stay quit 25 (13.3) 27 (13.9)  
 Plan to reduce smoking 34 (18.1) 28 (14.4)  
 Plan not to quit 11 (5.9) 14 (7.2)  
Current depressive symptoms4 88 (56.1) 88 (55.3) 0.900
Current anxiety symptoms5 96 (72.2) 98 (76.6) 0.418
Mild to Severe Risk of alcohol abuse6 133 (66.5) 123 (61.5) 0.298
NRT during hospitalization 188 (94.0) 190 (95.0) 0.661
Any smoking-cessation treatment 23 (13.9) 26 (20.5) 0.133
Any smoking-cessation counseling 57 (34.8) 37 (29.6) 0.354
Interest in receiving medication 170 (89.9) 171 (91.9) 0.503
  1. M Mean, SD Standard deviation, Md Median, IR Interquartile range, SES Social economic stratum, NRT Nicotine replacement therapy
  2. 1Assessed via Brazilian criteria and social class distribution (ABEP 2016)
  3. 21 real = 4.129 dollars, december 09, 2019
  4. 3Assessed via Fagerström test for nicotine dependence
  5. 4,5Assessed via patient health questionnaire 4 item (PHQ-4)
  6. 6Assessed via alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT-C)