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Table 1 Sample characteristics (N = 205)

From: Factors associated with age of diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder among children in Saudi Arabia: new insights from a cross-sectional study

Variable N (%) Median age at diagnosis in years (range)
Overall   3.0 (1.25—6.75)
Child
 Sex
  Male 170 (83) 3.0 (1.25—6.75)
  Female 35 (17) 2.8 (1.25—6.00)
Age
 3–5 years 53 (26) 2.3 (1.25—4.75)
 6–9 years 109 (53) 3.0 (1.25—5.50)
 10–13 years 23 (11) 3.0 (1.25—6.75)
 14–18 years 20 (10) 3.3 (1.75—6.00)
Autism red flags
 Language deficit
  Yes 120 (59) 2.9 (1.25—6.75)
  No   3.0 (1.25—5.25)
Lack of eye contact
 Yes 100 (49) 2.8 (1.25—6.75)
 No   3.0 (1.25—5.25)
Does not respond to name when called
 Yes 115 (56) 2.8 (1.25—6.00)
 No   3.0 (1.25—6.75)
Does not smile
 Yes 45 (22) 3.0 (1.25—5.50)
 No   3.0 (1.25—6.75)
Lack of looking back and forth to share interests
 Yes 89 (43) 2.7 (1.25—6.75)
 No   3.0 (1.25—6.00)
Does not babble
 Yes 25 (12) 3.0 (1.25—5.50)
 No   3.0 (1.25—6.75)
Odd play
 Yes 70 (34) 3.0 (1.25—6.75)
 No   2.8 (1.25—6.75)
Engaging in challenging behaviors
 Yes 48 (23) 3.0 (1.75—6.75)
 No   2.8 (1.25—5.25)
Severity of symptoms
 13–26 21 (10) 2.3 (1.25—4.00)
 27–39 133 (65) 3.0 (1.25—6.75)
 40–52 51 (25) 3.0 (1.75—6.00)
Comorbidity
 ADHD 109 (54) 3.0 (1.25—6.00)
 Intellectual disability 16 (8) 3.5 (2.00—6.75)
 Epilepsy 3 (1) 2.3 (2.00—3.50)
 Cerebral palsy 3 (1) 3.5 (3.00—4.50)
 None 74 (36) 2.5 (1.25—5.25)
City of diagnosis
 Major cities 146 (71) 3.0 (1.25—6.75)
 Other cities 41 (20) 2.8 (1.25—5.25)
 Outside Saudi Arabia 18 (9) 2.5 (1.50—5.00)
City of diagnosis
 In city of residence 127 (62) 3.0 (1.25—6.75)
 Outside city of residence 78 (38) 3.0 (1.25—6.00)
Family
 Saudi citizen
  Yes 184 (90) 2.9 (1.25—6.75)
  No 21 (10) 3.0 (1.50—5.25)
Maternal educational attainment
 Less than high school 26 (13) 3.0 (1.25—5.50)
 High school degree 47 (23) 3.0 (1.25—6.75)
 Some college credits 24 (12) 3.0 (1.25—5.25)
 College degree 94 (46) 2.8 (1.25—6.00)
 Graduate degree or higher 14 (7) 2.5 (1.75—4.25)
Maternal age
 ≤ 24 years 12 (6) 2.6 (1.50–6.75)
 25–34 years 100 (49) 3.0 (1.25—5.00)
 35–44 years 75 (37) 2.8 (1.25—5.50)
 45–54 years 18 (9) 3.0 (1.75—5.50)
Paternal educational attainment
 Less than high school 24 (12) 3.0 (1.25—5.00)
 High school degree 50 (24) 3.0 (1.25—6.75)
 Some college credits 34 (17) 3.0 (1.25—5.50)
 College degree 70 (34) 3.0 (1.25—6.00)
 Graduate degree or higher 27 (13) 2.4 (1.75—5.25)
Paternal age
 25–34 years 47 (23) 2.8 (1.25—5.00)
 35–44 years 96 (47) 3.0 (1.25—6.75)
 45–54 years 45 (22) 2.8 (1.25—6.00)
 55–64 years 9 (4) 4.0 (2.00—5.50)
 ≥ 65 years 7 (3) 3.3 (2.00—5.25)
Annual household income
 Below sufficiency line 81 (40) 3.0 (1.25—5.00)
 From sufficiency line to 100% above 81 (40) 3.0 (1.25—6.75)
 > 100% above 43 (20) 2.8 (1.25—6.00)
Residence
 Major cities 106 (52) 3.0 (1.25—6.75)
 Other cities 94 (46) 3.0 (1.25—6.00)
 Outside Saudi Arabia 5 (2) 1.5 (1.25—2.75)