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Table 2 Unadjusted linear regression predicting age of diagnosis in years (N = 205)

From: Factors associated with age of diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder among children in Saudi Arabia: new insights from a cross-sectional study

Variable B SE B β 95% CI
Child
 Sex (male) − 0.08 0.18 − 0.03 − 0.44 to 0.30
 Age (in years) 0.09 0.02 0.33 0.06 to 0.13
 Citizenship (Saudi) − 0.26 0.23 − 0.08 − 0.71 to 0.18
Autism red flags
 Language deficit − 0.04 0.14 − 0.02 − 0.31 to 0.24
 Lack of eye contact − 0.14 0.14 − 0.07 − 0.42 to 0.13
 Does not respond to name when called − 0.31 0.13 − 0.15 − 0.57 to − 0.29
 Does not smile − 0.11 0.16 − 0.05 − 0.44 to 0.23
 Lack of looking back and forth to share interests − 0.05 0.14 − 0.03 − 0.33 to 0.22
 Does not babble 0.03 0.21 0.01 − 0.39 to 0.45
 Odd play − 0.08 0.15 − 0.04 − 0.36 to 0.21
 Engaging in challenging behaviors 0.46 0.16 0.20 0.15 to 0.78
Severity of symptoms (total score) 0.03 0.01 0.18 0.01 to 0.05
Comorbidity
 ADHD 0.12 0.14 0.06 − 0.15 to 0.39
 Intellectual disability 0.92 0.26 0.25 0.42 to 1.44
 Epilepsy − 0.33 0.58 − 0.04 − 1.46 to 0.81
 Cerebral palsy 0.77 0.57 0.09 − 0.36 to 1.90
 None − 0.38 0.15 − 0.18 − 0.67 to − 0.01
City of diagnosis
 Major cities 0.22 0.15 0.10 − 0.08 to 0.51
 Other cities − 0.15 0.17 0.06 − 0.49 to 0.19
 Outside Saudi Arabia − 0.26 0.24 − 0.08 − 0.74 to 0.22
City of diagnosis (in) 0.01 0.14 0.04 − 0.27 to 0.29
Cost of diagnosis − 0.1 0.14 0.05 − 0.71 to 0.48
Family
 Maternal educational attainment
  Less than high school 0.04 0.21 0.01 − 0.37 to 0.45
  High school degree 0.15 0.16 0.06 − 0.18 to 0.47
  Some college credits 0.24 0.22 0.07 − 0.19 to 0.66
  College degree − 0.18 0.14 − 0.09 − 0.45 to 0.09
  Graduate degree or higher − 0.19 0.27 − 0.05 − 0.73 to 0.35
Maternal age
 ≤ 24 years 0.23 0.3 0.05 − 0.35 to 0.81
 25–34 years − 0.15 0.14 − 0.08 − 0.42 to 0.14
 35–44 years − 0.15 0.14 − 0.73 − 0.39 to 0.18
 45–54 years 0.61 0.24 0.17 0.13 to 1.08
Paternal educational attainment
 Less than high school 0.01 0.22 0.01 − 0.43 to 0.42
 High school degree 0.09 0.16 0.04 − 0.22 to 0.43
 Some college credits 0.02 0.19 0.01 − 0.34 to 0.39
 College degree 0.09 0.14 0.05 − 0.19 to 0.39
 Graduate degree or higher − 0.4 0.21 − 0.14 − 0.81 to 0.01
Paternal age
 25–34 years − 0.19 0.16 − 0.08 − 0.51 to 0.14
 35–44 years − 12 0.14 − 0.06 − 0.39 to 0.16
 45–54 years 0.05 0.17 0.02 − 0.29 to 0.38
 55—65 0.75 0.25 0.20 0.25 to 1.25
Annual household income
 Below the SL − 0.16 0.14 − 0.08 − 0.44 to 0.12
 SL to 100% above 0.25 0.14 0.13 − 0.2 to 0.54
 > 100% above − 0.15 0.017 − 0.06 − 0.48 to 0.19
Residence
 Major cities 0.03 0.14 0.02 − 0.24 to 0.31
 Other cities 0.07 0.14 0.03 − 0.20 to 0.34
 Outside Saudi Arabia − 1.03 0.44 − 0.16 − 1.91 to − 0.16
  1. Statistically significant findings at P ≤ 0.05 are in bold
  2. B unstandardized beta coefficient, SE B standard error, β standardized beta coefficient, CI confidence interval