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Table 2 Descriptive statistics of ambulation indices by weight status

From: Objectively-measured step cadence and walking patterns in a rural African setting: a cross-sectional analysis

  Combined (n = 263) Under-Normal weight (n = 122) Overweight-Obese (n = 141) p-valued
Number of days monitored
  All 5.5 (1.6) 5.4 (1.6) 5.4 (1.6) 0.5560
  Weekdays 3.7 (1.2) 3.8 (1.2) 3.7 (1.2) 0.2037
  Weekend days 1.7 (0.6) 1.7 (0.7) 1.7 (0.6) 0.4095
Average steps per day 13,568 (3571) 13,817 (3599) 13,353 (3545) 0.2937
Total walking bouts ≥ 1 min (bouts/day) 78 (17) 80 (17) 76 (17) 0.0629
Longest walking bout ≥ 1 min (minutes) 146 (70) 144 (66) 150 (69) 0.4672
Peak 1-min cadence (steps/min) 114 (13) 116 (13) 112 (12) 0.0063
Peak non-consecutive 30-min cadence (steps/min) 93 (14) 94 (14) 91 (13) 0.0564
Peak consecutive 30-min cadence (steps/min) 63 (16) 64 (16) 62 (16) 0.2932
Time in cadence band (min/day)a
  0 steps/min 273 (123) 289 (105) 248 (117) 0.0006
  1–19 steps/min (Incidental movement) 332 (76) 324 (62) 341 (80) 0.0112
  20–39 steps/min (Sporadic movement) 108 (50) 110 (46) 106 (52) 0.6449
  40–59 steps/min (Purposeful steps) 47 (26) 47 (25) 47 (28) 0.8888
  60–79 steps/min (Slow walking) 22 (11) 21 (10) 22 (12) 0.9948
  80–99 steps/min (Medium walking) 19 (15) 20 (13) 19 (17) 0.8434
  100–119 steps/min (Brisk walking) 17 (17) 19 (17) 13 (15) 0.0096
  ≥ 120 steps/min (Including all faster ambulation) 1 (3) 1 (4) 1 (2) 0.0209
Walking patternb
  Bout length
   S2w 1.167 (0.116) 1.154 (0.115) 1.178 (0.115) 0.0894
   G 0.589 (0.046) 0.584 (0.045) 0.594 (0.046) 0.0861
  Cadence
   Bouted S2w 1.274 (0.099) 1.292 (0.083) 1.258 (0.108) 0.0050
   Bouted G 0.631 (0.038) 0.638 (0.031) 0.625 (0.420) 0.0040
   Unbouted S2w 1.394 (0.107) 1.400 (0.108) 1.389 (0.106) 0.3971
   Unbouted G 0.675 (0.037) 0.677 (0.037) 0.673 (0.037) 0.4011
 Bout characteristics for step cadence ≥ 100 steps/mina
  Total walking bouts ≥ 1 min (bouts/day−1) 7 (6) 8 (4) 5 (5) 0.0179
  Maximum bout duration ≥ 1 min (minutes) 5.3 (5.8) 6.0 (5.5) 4.5 (5.7) 0.0463
  Proportion of all walking bouts (%)
   ≥ 1 min bout 7.7 (7.6) 8.4 (7.1) 7.1 (8.1) 0.0666
   1 min bout 3.2 (3.3) 3.6 (2.9) 2.9 (3.9) 0.0960
   2 min bout 1.5 (1.7) 1.6 (1.7) 1.3 (1.6) 0.0941
   5 min bout 0.3 (0.6) 0.3 (0.6) 0.3 (0.6) 0.2617
   ≥ 10 min bout 0.3 (0.7) 0.3 (0.9) 0.2 (0.6) 0.1413
  1. Unadjusted values are reported as mean (sd) except
  2. aMedian (iqr)
  3. bS2w: within-subject distribution, G: Gini coefficient
  4. cbouted: average cadence within a continuous bout of steps (bout ≥ 1 min), unbouted: minute-by-minute cadence
  5. dsignificant difference, p < 0.05: Under-Normal weight (Body Mass Index: < 25 kg/m2) vs. Overweight-obese (Body Mass Index: ≥ 25 kg/m2), continuous variables: independent t test or Mann–Whitney U test; categorical variables: Fisher’s exact test