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  1. Risk prediction for CVD events has been shown to vary according to current smoking status, pack-years smoked over a lifetime, time since quitting and age at quitting. The latter two are closely and inversely r...

    Authors: Haider R Mannan, Christopher E Stevenson, Anna Peeters, Helen L Walls and John J McNeil

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:39

    Content type: Short Report

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  2. It was recently postulated that a few individual grey cattle still found in Estonia might be a relict of the old native cattle stock. Genotypes at 17 microsatellite loci from a total of 243 cattle from North E...

    Authors: Meng-Hua Li, Juha Kantanen, Annika Michelson and Urmas Saarma

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:37

    Content type: Short Report

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  3. The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated.

    Authors: Christine J Piek, Bas Brinkhof, Jan Rothuizen, Aldo Dekker and Louis C Penning

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:36

    Content type: Technical Note

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  4. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is significant health problem, as it can lead to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatic carcinoma. Due to shared routes of transmission, HBV and human immunodeficienc...

    Authors: Asfaw Negero, Zufan Sisay and Girmay Medhin

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:35

    Content type: Short Report

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  5. A strong association between stress resistance and longevity in multicellular organisms has been established as many mutations that extend lifespan also show increased resistance to stress. AAK-2, the C. elegans ...

    Authors: Heesun Shin, Hyojin Lee, Anthony P Fejes, David L Baillie, Hyeon-Sook Koo and Steven JM Jones

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:34

    Content type: Short Report

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  6. Reports from urban medical centers suggest that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become the most common cause of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). Risk factors for MRSA have been iden...

    Authors: Charles Weiss, Peggy Kaminsky, John Boggs and Catherine Ley

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:33

    Content type: Short Report

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  7. The guppy (Poecilia reticulata) is an important model organism for studying sexual selection; male guppies have complex and conspicuous pigmentation, and female guppies exhibit preferences for males with specific...

    Authors: Ayumi Tezuka, Hiroaki Yamamoto, Jun Yokoyama, Cock van Oosterhout and Masakado Kawata

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:31

    Content type: Short Report

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  8. Intimin is an important virulence factor involved in the pathogenesis of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Both pathogens are still important causes of diarrh...

    Authors: Márcio A Menezes, Karina A Aires, Christiane Y Ozaki, Renato M Ruiz, Milton CA Pereira, Patrícia AE Abreu, Waldir P Elias, Oscar HP Ramos and Roxane MF Piazza

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:30

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  9. Overweight and obesity are established risk factors for insulin resistance in youth. A number of behavioral recommendations have been publicized with the goal of improving glycemic control. However, there is l...

    Authors: Jeannie S Huang, Michael Gottschalk, Gregory J Norman, Karen J Calfas, James F Sallis and Kevin Patrick

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:29

    Content type: Short Report

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  10. Approximately 5-10% of persons infected with M. tuberculosis develop tuberculosis, but the factors associated with disease progression are incompletely understood. Both linkage and association studies have identi...

    Authors: Noffisat O Oki, Alison A Motsinger-Reif, Paulo RZ Antas, Shawn Levy, Steven M Holland and Timothy R Sterling

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:28

    Content type: Short Report

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  11. Microsatellites, also called Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs), repetitions of nucleotide motifs of 1-5 bases, are currently the markers of choice due to their abundant distribution in the genomes, and suitabilit...

    Authors: Satya S Narina, Christian A d'Orgeix and Brian L Sayre

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:26

    Content type: Short Report

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  12. Insulin resistance (IR) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is an easily detectable skin condition that is strongly associated with IR. The aims of this stud...

    Authors: Anuradha S Dassanayake, Anuradhani Kasturiratne, Madunil A Niriella, Udaya Kalubovila, Shaman Rajindrajith, Arjuna P de Silva, Norihiro Kato, A Rajitha Wickremasinghe and H Janaka de Silva

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:25

    Content type: Short Report

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  13. Langerhans cells constitute a special subset of immature dendritic cells localized in the epidermis that play a key role in the skin's immune response. The production of cytokines is a key event in both the in...

    Authors: Simone R Campelo, Moises B da Silva, José LF Vieira, Jorge P da Silva and Claudio G Salgado

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:24

    Content type: Short Report

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  14. To assess a pulmonary function change over time the mass flow sensor and the pneumotachograph are widely used in commercially available instruments. However, the smallest detectable change for both devices has...

    Authors: Herman Groepenhoff, Caroline B Terwee, Patrick MC Jak and Anton Vonk-Noordegraaf

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:23

    Content type: Short Report

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  15. This article constitutes a partial update of the original systematic review evidence by Yengopal et al. from 15 January 2008 (published in the Journal of Oral Science in 2009) with primary focus on research qu...

    Authors: Steffen Mickenautsch and Veerasamy Yengopal

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:22

    Content type: Correspondence

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  16. We developed a new version of the open source software package Peptrix that can yet compare large numbers of Orbitrap™ LC-MS data. The peptide profiling results for Peptrix on MS1 spectra were compared with th...

    Authors: Mark K Titulaer, Dominique de Costa, Christoph Stingl, Lennard J Dekker, Peter AE Sillevis Smitt and Theo M Luider

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:21

    Content type: Technical Note

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  17. A recent analysis of protein sequences deposited in the NCBI RefSeq database indicates that ~8.5 million protein sequences are encoded in prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, where ~30% are explicitly annotated...

    Authors: Robert Powers, Jennifer C Copeland, Jaime L Stark, Adam Caprez, Ashu Guru and David Swanson

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:17

    Content type: Technical Note

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  18. Injection of biomaterial to suburetral region, using minimally invasive procedure, has become an interesting topic for urologists to treat vesicoureteral reflux. The objective of this study was to evaluate the...

    Authors: Jalal Bakhtiari, Abdol Mohammad Kajbafzadeh, Mahdi Marjani, Abbas Veshkini, Azin Tavakoli, Mohammad Javad Gharagozlou and Amir Niasari-Naslaji

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:14

    Content type: Short Report

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  19. The S. cerevisiae mating type switch model of double-strand break (DSB) repair, utilizing the HO endonuclease, is one of the best studied systems for both Homologous Recombination Repair (HRR) and direct ends-joi...

    Authors: Preeti Kanikarla-Marie, Sharon Ronald and Arrigo De Benedetti

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:13

    Content type: Short Report

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  20. Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes (TILLING) is a high throughput reverse genetics tool which detects mismatches (single point mutations or small indels) in large number of individuals of mutagenized p...

    Authors: Soni Gupta, Chaitanya Charakana, Yellamaraju Sreelakshmi and Rameshwar Sharma

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:12

    Content type: Technical Note

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  21. In Dutch laboratories molecular detection of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis is commonly based on insertion sequences IS 481 and IS 1001, respectively. Both IS elements are more widely spread among Bordetella s...

    Authors: Lieuwe Roorda, Johannes Buitenwerf, Jacobus M Ossewaarde and Anneke van der Zee

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:11

    Content type: Technical Note

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  22. Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat, so-called Shimofuri, is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. Our previous study detected 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms...

    Authors: Naoto Watanabe, Youichi Satoh, Tatsuo Fujita, Takeshi Ohta, Hiroyuki Kose, Youji Muramatsu, Takuji Yamamoto and Takahisa Yamada

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:10

    Content type: Short Report

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  23. Primary hepatocytes are the best resource for in vitro studies directed at understanding hepatic processes at the cellular and molecular levels, necessary for novel drug development to treat highly prevalent dise...

    Authors: Jae-Seung Park, Sneha Surendran, Lisa M Kamendulis and Núria Morral

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:8

    Content type: Short Report

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  24. This cross-sectional study was conducted during summer 2008 at an academic ophthalmic hospital to assess patient satisfaction with care services and examine the impact of different dimensions on overall satisf...

    Authors: Hossain Ziaei, Marzieh Katibeh, Armen Eskandari, Monir Mirzadeh, Zahra Rabbanikhah and Mohammad Ali Javadi

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:7

    Content type: Short Report

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  25. The reticulon Nogo-B participates in cellular and immunological processes in murine macrophages. Since leukocytes are an essential part of the immune system in health and disease, we decided to investigate the...

    Authors: Kathrin Schanda, Martin Hermann, Nadia Stefanova, Viktoria Gredler, Christine Bandtlow and Markus Reindl

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:6

    Content type: Short Report

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  26. The members of the genus Acinetobacter are Gram-negative cocobacilli that are frequently found in the environment but also in the hospital setting where they have been associated with outbreaks of nosocomial infe...

    Authors: Sara Martí, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Manuella Catel-Ferreira, Thierry Jouenne, Jordi Vila, Harald Seifert and Emmanuelle Dé

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:5

    Content type: Short Report

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  27. The World Health Organization alert for the H1N1 influenza pandemic led to the implementation of certain measures regarding admission of patients with flu-like symptoms. All these instructions were adopted by ...

    Authors: Paul Zarogoulidis, Theodoros Constantinidis, Paschalis Steiropoulos, Nikolaos Papanas, Kostas Zarogoulidis and Efstratios Maltezos

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:4

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on:

  28. RNA quality and quantity are important factors for ensuring the accuracy of gene expression analysis and other RNA-based downstream applications. Extraction of high quality nucleic acids is difficult from neur...

    Authors: Lucélia Tavares, Paula M Alves, Ricardo B Ferreira and Claudia N Santos

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:3

    Content type: Technical Note

    Published on:

  29. Angiostatic/antiinflammatory therapy with COX-II inhibitors and pioglitazone seems to be a well tolerated and promising regimen in patients with metastatic cancer. COX-II inhibitors may have less gastrointesti...

    Authors: Stephan W Reinhold, Albrecht Reichle, Sonja Leiminger, Tobias Bergler, Ute Hoffmann, Bernd Krüger, Bernhard Banas and Bernhard K Krämer

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:2

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Molecular genetic studies on rare tumour entities, such as bone tumours, often require the use of decalcified, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue (dFFPE) samples. Regardless of which decalcification proc...

    Authors: Danielle de Jong, Sofie LJ Verbeke, Danielle Meijer, Pancras CW Hogendoorn, Judith VMG Bovee and Károly Szuhai

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:1

    Content type: Technical Note

    Published on:

  31. The identification of copy number aberration in the human genome is an important area in cancer research. We develop a model for determining genomic copy numbers using high-density single nucleotide polymorphi...

    Authors: Beibei Guo, Alejandro Villagran, Marina Vannucci, Jian Wang, Caleb Davis, Tsz-Kwong Man, Ching Lau and Rudy Guerra

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2010 3:350

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  32. The maturing of gene expression microarray technology and interest in the use of microarray-based applications for clinical and diagnostic applications calls for quantitative measures of quality. This manuscri...

    Authors: Katrice A Lippa, David L Duewer, Marc L Salit, Laurence Game and Helen C Causton

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2010 3:349

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Published data on the existence and magnitude of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production in urinary pathogens in local setting is limited. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalenc...

    Authors: Sabrina J Moyo, Said Aboud, Mabula Kasubi, Eligius F Lyamuya and Samuel Y Maselle

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2010 3:348

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on:

  34. Plasma microRNA (miRNA) has become a promising biomarker for detecting cancer; however, it remains uncertain whether miRNA expression levels in plasma reflect those in tumor cells. Our aim was to determine the...

    Authors: Junko H Ohyashiki, Tomohiro Umezu, Chiaki Kobayashi, Ryoko S Hamamura, Masami Tanaka, Masahiko Kuroda and Kazuma Ohyashiki

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2010 3:347

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. The Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche Kafuensis), a medium-sized semi-aquatic antelope, is endemic to the Kafue basin of Zambia. The population of the Kafue lechwe has significantly dropped in the last decades leading to...

    Authors: Musso Munyeme, Hetron M Munang'andu, John B Muma, Andrew M Nambota, Demelash Biffa and Victor M Siamudaala

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2010 3:346

    Content type: Short Report

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  36. The occurrence of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) - which may have serious, long-term effects on affected women, including faecal incontinence, despite primary repair - varies widely between countrie...

    Authors: Sari Räisänen, Katri Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Mika Gissler and Seppo Heinonen

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2010 3:345

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on:

  37. Hydrophobins are a family of small secreted proteins with a characteristic pattern of eight cysteine residues found exclusively in filamentous fungi. They have originally been divided into two classes based on...

    Authors: Britt G Jensen, Mikael R Andersen, Mona H Pedersen, Jens C Frisvad and Ib Søndergaard

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2010 3:344

    Content type: Short Report

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  38. Although many strain typing methods exist for pathogenic Escherichia coli, most have drawbacks in terms of resolving power, interpretability, or scalability. For this reason, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is ...

    Authors: Swaraj Rajkhowa, Joy Scaria, Daniel L Garcia, Kimberlee A Musser, Bruce L Akey and Yung-Fu Chang

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2010 3:343

    Content type: Correspondence

    Published on:

  39. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common adult leukemia in the western population. Although genetic factors are considered to contribute to CLL etiology, at present genomic aberrations identified ...

    Authors: Yeong C Kim, Yong-Chul Jung, Jun Chen, Ali H Alhasan, Parawee Kaewsaard, Yanming Zhang, Shuo Ma, Steve Rosen and San Ming Wang

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2010 3:341

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on:

  40. Tuberculosis (TB) control is based on early detection and complete treatment of infectious cases. Consequently, it is important that TB suspects and patients can readily access medical care. This qualitative s...

    Authors: Raffael Ayé, Kaspar Wyss, Hanifa Abdualimova and Sadullo Saidaliev

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2010 3:340

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on:

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