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  1. Euglenophyta and Chlorarachniophyta are groups of photosynthetic eukaryotes harboring secondary plastids of distinct green algal origins. Although previous phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding Calvin cycle ...

    Authors: Yi Yang, Shinichiro Maruyama, Hiroyuki Sekimoto, Hidetoshi Sakayama and Hisayoshi Nozaki

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:330

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Areas for institutional improvement to enhance patient safety are commonly identified by surveying health care workers' (HCWs) attitudes, values, beliefs, perceptions and assumptions regarding institutional pr...

    Authors: Tita A Listyowardojo, Raoul E Nap and Addie Johnson

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:328

    Content type: Short Report

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  3. Blood is a convenient sample and increasingly used for quantitative gene expression measurements with a variety of diseases including chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Quantitative gene expression measurements r...

    Authors: Virginia R Falkenberg, Toni Whistler, Janna' R Murray, Elizabeth R Unger and Mangalathu S Rajeevan

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:324

    Content type: Short Report

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  4. Anderson-Fabry disease (FD) is caused by a deficit of the α-galactosidase A enzyme which leads to the accumulation of complex sphingolipids, especially globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), in all the cells of the body...

    Authors: Caterina Bono, Domenico Nuzzo, Giuseppe Albeggiani, Carmela Zizzo, Daniele Francofonte, Francesco Iemolo, Enzo Sanzaro and Giovanni Duro

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:323

    Content type: Short Report

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  5. The current study was undertaken to determine the degree of activation of gallbladder mucosal mast cells, whether mast cell (MC) density or activation differ between patients with and without a positive clinic...

    Authors: Craig A Friesen, Nancy Neilan, James F Daniel, Kim Radford, Jennifer V Schurman, Ding-You Li, Linda Andre, Shawn D St Peter and George W Holcomb III

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:322

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) have been implicated in insecticide resistance. Anopheles minumus mosquito P450 isoforms CYP6AA3 and CYP6P7 are capable of metabolizing pyrethroid insecticides, however CYP6P8 lack...

    Authors: Panida Lertkiatmongkol, Ekachai Jenwitheesuk and Pornpimol Rongnoparut

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:321

    Content type: Short Report

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  7. Heart failure is a critical condition that affects many people and often results from left ventricular dysfunction. Numerous studies investigating this condition have been performed using various model systems...

    Authors: Mallory K Tate, William S Lawrence, Randy L Gourley, Diana L Zavala, Lori E Weaver, Scott T Moen and Johnny W Peterson

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:320

    Content type: Technical Note

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  8. Despite available guidelines on hypertension (HTN), use of antihypertensives is variable. This study was designed to ascertain frequency of patients on monotherapy and > 1 antihypertensive therapy and also to ...

    Authors: Aysha Almas, Salik ur Rehman Iqbal, Anabia Ehtamam and Aamir Hameed Khan

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:318

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The hierarchical nature of medical education has been thought necessary for the safe care of patients. In this setting, medical students in particular have limited opportunities for experiential learning. We r...

    Authors: Ira L Leeds, Francis X Creighton, Matthew A Wheatley, Jana B Macleod, Jahnavi Srinivasan, Marie P Chery and Viraj A Master

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:317

    Content type: Project Note

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  10. Pegylated (PEG)-interferon (IFN)-alfa-2a plus ribavirin (RBV) therapy for 24 weeks is now a standard treatment protocol for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2. As RBV cannot be used in certain si...

    Authors: Reiko Etoh, Fumio Imazeki, Tomoko Kurihara, Kenichi Fukai, Keiichi Fujiwara, Makoto Arai, Tatsuo Kanda, Rintaro Mikata, Yutaka Yonemitsu and Osamu Yokosuka

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:316

    Content type: Research article

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  11. To explore any gender-related differences in the prevalence of conditions-associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among Taiwanese taxi drivers in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Authors: Tao-Hsin Tung, Tsung-Hung Chang, Wei-Hsiu Chiu, Tzu-Han Lin, Hui-Chuan Shih, Ming-Huei Chang and Jorn-Hon Liu

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:315

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The practice and research of medicine generates considerable quantities of data and model resources (DMRs). Although in principle biomedical resources are re-usable, in practice few can currently be shared. In...

    Authors: Bernard de Bono, Robert Hoehndorf, Sarala Wimalaratne, George Gkoutos and Pierre Grenon

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:313

    Content type: Short Report

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  13. Organismal complexity is suggested to increase with the complexity of transcriptional and translational regulations. Supporting this notion is a recent study that demonstrated a higher level of tissue-specific...

    Authors: Chun-Hsi Chen, Hsuan-Yu Lin, Chia-Lin Pan and Feng-Chi Chen

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:312

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Anaemia during pregnancy is major health problem. There is conflicting literature regarding the association between anaemia and its severity and maternal and perinatal outcomes.

    Authors: AbdelAziem A Ali, Duria A Rayis, Tajeldin M Abdallah, Mustafa I Elbashir and Ishag Adam

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:311

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Snakes provide a unique vertebrate system for studying a diversity of extreme adaptations, including those related to development, metabolism, physiology, and venom. Despite their importance as research models...

    Authors: Todd A Castoe, Samuel E Fox, AP Jason de Koning, Alexander W Poole, Juan M Daza, Eric N Smith, Todd C Mockler, Stephen M Secor and David D Pollock

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:310

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Cross-resistance to quinolones and beta-lactams is frequent in Enterobacteriaceae, due to the wide use of these antibiotics clinically and in the food industry. Prescription of one of these categories of antibiot...

    Authors: Thierry Frank, Jean R Mbecko, Pembe Misatou and Didier Monchy

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:309

    Content type: Short Report

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  17. To preserve patient anonymity, health register data may be provided as binned data only. Here we consider as example, how to estimate mean survival time after a diagnosis of metastatic colorectal cancer from N...

    Authors: Henrik Støvring and Ivar S Kristiansen

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:308

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Salmonella (S.) enterica is the main cause of salmonellosis in humans and animals. The epidemiology of this infection involves large geographical distances, and strains related to an episode of salmonellosis ther...

    Authors: Hélène van Cuyck, Alexandra Farbos-Granger, Philippe Leroy, Vuthy Yith, Bertrand Guillard, Jean Louis Sarthou, Jean Louis Koeck and Sun Lay Kruy

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:306

    Content type: Research article

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  19. While the transcription of innate immunity genes in response to bacterial infection has been well-characterised in the Drosophila model, we recently demonstrated the capacity for such transcription to evolve i...

    Authors: Yixin H Ye and Elizabeth A McGraw

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:305

    Content type: Short Report

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  20. To assist educators and researchers in improving the quality of medical research, we surveyed the editors and statistical reviewers of high-impact medical journals to ascertain the most frequent and critical s...

    Authors: Sara Fernandes-Taylor, Jenny K Hyun, Rachelle N Reeder and Alex HS Harris

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:304

    Content type: Short Report

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  21. Apomixis, a natural form of asexual seed production in plants, is considered to have great biotechnological potential for agriculture. It has been hypothesised that de-regulation of the sexual developmental pa...

    Authors: Marco Pellino, Timothy F Sharbel, Martin Mau, Samuel Amiteye and José María Corral

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:303

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The NAC transcription factor family is involved in the regulation of traits in both monocots and dicots of high agronomic importance. Understanding the precise functions of the NAC genes can be of utmost impor...

    Authors: Michael W Christiansen, Preben B Holm and Per L Gregersen

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:302

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Body Mass Index (BMI), which is defined as the ratio between weight (in kg) and height (in m2), is often used in clinical practice as well as in large scale epidemiological studies to classify subjects as underwe...

    Authors: Bruno Federico, Filomena D'Aliesio, Fabio Pane, Giovanni Capelli and Angelo Rodio

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:301

    Content type: Short Report

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  24. DNA methylation is a widespread epigenetic modification in vertebrate genomes. Genomic sites of DNA methylation can be bound by methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins (MBDs) and specific zinc finger proteins, whic...

    Authors: Ozren Bogdanović and Gert Jan C Veenstra

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:300

    Content type: Technical Note

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  25. Dementia and cognitive impairment associated with aging are a major medical and social concern. Neuropsychological testing is a key element in the diagnostic procedures of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), but ...

    Authors: João Maroco, Dina Silva, Ana Rodrigues, Manuela Guerreiro, Isabel Santana and Alexandre de Mendonça

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:299

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Infertility is a major problem in sickle cell disease patients, especially in males. In addition to low serum testosterone, other abnormalities involving the accessory sex organs, such as the seminal vesicles ...

    Authors: Emmanuel K Abudu, Sulaiman A Akanmu, Oyetunji O Soriyan, Akinsegun A Akinbami, Adewumi Adediran, Titilope A Adeyemo and Charles C Okany

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:298

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The use of the 2009 H1N1 vaccine has generated much debate concerning safety issues among the general population and physicians. It was questioned if this is a safe vaccine. Therefore, we investigated the safe...

    Authors: Harald Bias, David Quarcoo, Claus Meier-Wronski, Sabine Wicker, Joachim Seybold, Albert Nienhaus, David A Groneberg and Andres de Roux

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:297

    Content type: Short Report

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  28. When detected, HIV can be effectively treated with antiretroviral therapy. Nevertheless in the U.S. approximately 25% of those who are HIV-infected do not know it. Much remains unknown about how to increase HI...

    Authors: D Keith McInnes, Jeffrey L Solomon, Barbara G Bokhour, Steven M Asch, David Ross, Kim M Nazi and Allen L Gifford

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:295

    Content type: Short Report

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  29. CD99, a leukocyte surface glycoprotein, is broadly expressed in many cell types. On the cell surface, CD99 is expressed as two distinct isoforms, a long form and a short form. CD99 has been demonstrated to pla...

    Authors: Supansa Pata, Pavel Otáhal, Tomáš Brdička, Witida Laopajon, Kodchakorn Mahasongkram and Watchara Kasinrerk

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:293

    Content type: Research article

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  30. In many developing countries, including Ethiopia, few have the skills to use data for effective decision making in public health. To address this need, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)...

    Authors: Italia V Rolle, Irum Zaidi, Jennifer Scharff, Donna Jones, Aynalem Firew, Fikre Enquselassie, Ashenafi Negash, Negussie Deyessa, Getnet Mitike, Nadine Sunderland and Peter Nsubuga

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:292

    Content type: Short Report

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  31. The Taiwan Birth Panel Study (TBPS) is a prospective follow-up study to investigate the development of child health and disease in relation to in-utero and/or early childhood environmental exposures. The ratio...

    Authors: Chia-Jung Hsieh, Wu-Shiun Hsieh, Yi-Ning Su, Hua-Fang Liao, Suh-Fang Jeng, Feng-Ming Taso, Yaw-Huei Hwang, Kuen-Yuh Wu, Chia-Yang Chen, Yueliang Leon Guo and Pau-Chung Chen

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:291

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The availability of genetic and genomic resources for melon has increased significantly, but functional genomics resources are still limited for this crop. TILLING is a powerful reverse genetics approach that ...

    Authors: Mireia González, Meihong Xu, Cristina Esteras, Cristina Roig, Antonio J Monforte, Christelle Troadec, Marta Pujol, Fernando Nuez, Abdelhafid Bendahmane, Jordi Garcia-Mas and Belén Picó

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:289

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The advent of ChIP-seq technology has made the investigation of epigenetic regulatory networks a computationally tractable problem. Several groups have applied statistical computing methods to ChIP-seq dataset...

    Authors: Stephen A Hoang, Xiaojiang Xu and Stefan Bekiranov

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:288

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Beta thalassemia is the most frequent genetic disorder of haemoglobin synthesis in Pakistan. Recurrent transfusions lead to iron-overload manifested by increased serum Ferritin levels, for which chelation ther...

    Authors: Haris Riaz, Talha Riaz, Muhammad Ubaid Khan, Sina Aziz, Faizan Ullah, Anis Rehman, Qandeel Zafar and Abdul Nafey Kazi

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:287

    Content type: Short Report

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  35. Brucella epididymoorchitis(BEO) is a focal complication of human brucellosis and has been reported in 2-20% of patients with brucellosis. Brucellosis is an endemic disease in Iran. The incidence of the disease...

    Authors: Narges Najafi, Roya Ghassemian, Ali R Davoody and Atefe Tayebi

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:286

    Content type: Short Report

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  36. Engaging all health care providers in tuberculosis (TB) control has been incorporated as an essential component of World Health Organization's Stop TB Strategy and the Stop TB Partnership's global plan 2006-20...

    Authors: Solomon A Yimer, Carol-Holm Hansen and Gunnar A Bjune

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:285

    Content type: Research article

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  37. In intensive care, weaning is the term used for the process of withdrawal of mechanical ventilation to enable spontaneous breathing to be re-established. Inspiratory muscle weakness and deconditioning are comm...

    Authors: Lisa H Moodie, Julie C Reeve, Niki Vermeulen and Mark R Elkins

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:283

    Content type: Project Note

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  38. Protein biomarker studies are currently hampered by a lack of measurement standards to demonstrate quality, reliability and comparability across multiple assay platforms. This is especially pertinent for immun...

    Authors: Susan Pang, Enamul S Ahsan, Hernan J Valdivia, Jesus Minguez and Carole A Foy

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:281

    Content type: Short Report

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  39. Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units - variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) genotyping is a powerful tool for unraveling clonally complex Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains and detection of ...

    Authors: Lydia Nabyonga, David P Kateete, Fred A Katabazi, Paul R Odong, Christopher C Whalen, Katherine R Dickman and Joloba L Moses

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:280

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Pleural tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis often requires invasive procedures such as pleural biopsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the IS 6110 sequence ...

    Authors: Franciele Rosso, Candice T Michelon, Rosa D Sperhacke, Mirela Verza, Liliane Olival, Marcus B Conde, Renata L Guerra, Arnaldo Zaha and Maria LR Rossetti

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:279

    Content type: Short Report

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  41. Sensitivity to cold (hiesho) is a serious health problem in Japan, yet it is minimally understood within Western cultures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the divergence between pregnant Japanese woman l...

    Authors: Sachiyo Nakamura, Sueli MT Ichisato, Shigeko Horiuchi, Taeko Mori and Masako Momoi

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:278

    Content type: Research article

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