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  1. Stigma toward schizophrenia is a substantial barrier to accessing care and adhering to treatment. Provisions to combat stigma are important, but in Japan and other developed countries there are few such provis...

    Authors: Hatsumi Yoshii, Yuichiro Watanabe, Hideaki Kitamura, Zhang Nan and Kouhei Akazawa

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:558

    Content type: Research article

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  2. We compared the risk of being diagnosed with smoking-related cancers (lung, oral cavity, upper digestive and respiratory organs, bladder, kidney, anogenital cancers and myeloid leukaemia) among people with squ...

    Authors: Freddy Sitas, Xue Qin Yu, Dianne L O'Connell, Leigh Blizzard, Petr Otahal, Leah Newman and Alison Venn

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:556

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Normalization is critical for accurate gene expression analysis. A significant challenge in the quantitation of gene expression from biofluids samples is the inability to quantify RNA concentration prior to an...

    Authors: Dennis Wylie, Jeffrey Shelton, Ashish Choudhary and Alex T Adai

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:555

    Content type: Short Report

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  4. Canine atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease associated with defects in the epidermal barrier, particularly in West Highland white terriers (WHWTs). It shares many similarities with huma...

    Authors: Joana Barros Roque, Caroline A O'Leary, Myat Kyaw-Tanner, David L Duffy and Michael Shipstone

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:554

    Content type: Short Report

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  5. Recent studies indicate an increase in tumor progression and recurrence in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) of cancer patients taking recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo) for anemia. This stu...

    Authors: Eric Abhold, Elham Rahimy, Jessica Wang-Rodriguez, Katherine J Blair, Michael A Yu, Kevin T Brumund, Robert A Weisman and Weg M Ongkeko

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:553

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Several studies have shown that in diabetic patients, the glycemic profile was disturbed after intra-articular injection of corticosteroids. Little is known about the impact of epidural injection in such patie...

    Authors: Pascal Zufferey, Charly Bulliard, Gerald Gremion, Marial Saugy and Alexander So

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:552

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial malignancy, which commonly occurs in Southern China, Taiwan, North Africa and Southeast Asia. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is strongly associated with Epstein-Barr v...

    Authors: Roslina Husaini, Munirah Ahmad and Alan Soo-Beng Khoo

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:551

    Content type: Short Report

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  8. For performance assessment during simulation, mostly observers rate the trainees' performance using checklists. Simulator outcome may provide immediate and objective feedback to the participants but requires a...

    Authors: Christian M Schulz, Valentin Mayer, Matthias Kreuzer, Eberhard F Kochs and Gerhard Schneider

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:550

    Content type: Technical Note

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  9. Protein-Protein interactions (PPI) play a key role in determining the outcome of most cellular processes. The correct identification and characterization of protein interactions and the networks, which they co...

    Authors: Charalampos N Moschopoulos, Georgios A Pavlopoulos, Ernesto Iacucci, Jan Aerts, Spiridon Likothanassis, Reinhard Schneider and Sophia Kossida

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:549

    Content type: Research article

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  10. People often have concerns regarding tumour spread after biopsy which leads to a delay in seeking expert medical advice. The data regarding this perception is scanty. Therefore, we conducted this cross section...

    Authors: Tayyaba Z Ansari, Adnan A Zaidi, Asra Parekh, Owais Iqbal, Nehal Masood, Ahmed Mateen and Tehseen Fatima

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:548

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Ram spermatozoa are sensitive to extreme changes in temperature during the freeze-thaw process. The degree of damage depends on a combined effect of various factors including freezing temperature. The aim of t...

    Authors: Iraj Ashrafi, Hamid Kohram, Hamid Naijian, Majid Bahreini and Hamid Mirzakhani

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:547

    Content type: Research article

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Research Notes 2012 5:319

  12. The study of the human DNA methylome has gained particular interest in the last few years. Researchers can nowadays investigate the potential role of DNA methylation in common disorders by taking advantage of ...

    Authors: Francesco M Mancuso, Magda Montfort, Anna Carreras, Andreu Alibés and Guglielmo Roma

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:546

    Content type: Data Note

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  13. Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia is a common vascular pregnancy disorder associated with high maternal and infant mortality and morbidity worldwide. The role of Activin A and more recently type 2 Activin A receptor (AC...

    Authors: A Inkeri Lokki, Miira M Klemetti, Sanna Heino, Leena Hiltunen, Seppo Heinonen and Hannele Laivuori

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:545

    Content type: Short Report

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  14. In recent years, due to the increasingly hostile environment in the medical malpractice field and related lawsuits in Italy, physicians began informing themselves regarding their comprehensive medical malpract...

    Authors: Serena Scurria, Alessio Asmundo, Claudio Crinò and Patrizia Gualniera

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:544

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Yaws is a bacterial skin and bone infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum pertenue. It is endemic, particularly among pygmies in Central African Republic. To assess the clinical cure rate after treatment ...

    Authors: Alexandre Manirakiza, Susana Vilas Boas, Narcisse Beyam, Germain Zadanga, François Xavier Konamna, Siméon P Njuimo and Rémi Laganier

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:543

    Content type: Short Report

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  16. Nutritional vitamin D deficiency is an emerging risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure. The association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide...

    Authors: James B Wetmore, Rajyalakshmi Gadi, John H Lee, James H O'Keefe, Paul S Chan, Fengming Tang and John A Spertus

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:542

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Calcium signals ([Ca2+]i) direct many aspects of embryo development but their regulation is not well characterised. Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a family of intracellular Ca2+ release channels that control the ...

    Authors: Houdini HT Wu, Caroline Brennan and Rachel Ashworth

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:541

    Content type: Short Report

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  18. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability. It has been postulated that brain metabolic status, intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) are related to patie...

    Authors: Theoniki Paraforou, Konstantinos Paterakis, Konstantinos Fountas, George Paraforos, Achilleas Chovas, Anastasia Tasiou, Maria Mpakopoulou, Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Antonios Karavellis and Apostolos Komnos

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:540

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The prevalence and severity of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic appeared to vary significantly across populations and geographic regions. We sought to investigate the variability in transmissibility of H1N1 pandemic in ...

    Authors: Luiz C Mostaço-Guidolin, Amy Greer, Beate Sander, Jianhong Wu and Seyed M Moghadas

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:537

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Comprehensive antenatal, perinatal and early postnatal care has the potential to significantly reduce the 3.58 million neonatal deaths that occur annually worldwide. This paper systematically reviews data on t...

    Authors: Aruna Chandran, Hadley K Herbert, Anne CC Lee, Igor Rudan and Abdullah H Baqui

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:536

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Due to its perception as a disease of development, road traffic accident and related injuries tend to be under recognized as a major health problem in developing countries. However, majority of the world's fat...

    Authors: Abrahim Hassen, Ameyu Godesso, Lakew Abebe and Eshetu Girma

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:535

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A is caused by mutations in the LAMA2 gene that encodes the laminin α2 chain, a component of the skeletal muscle extracellular matrix protein laminin-211. The clinical spectrum...

    Authors: Claudia Di Blasi, Emanuela Bellafiore, Mustafa AM Salih, M Chiara Manzini, Steven A Moore, Mohammed Z Seidahmed, Maowia M Mukhtar, Zein A Karrar, Christopher A Walsh, Kevin P Campbell, Renato Mantegazza, Lucia Morandi and Marina Mora

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:534

    Content type: Research article

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  23. An important condition for independent living is having a well-functioning social network to provide support. An Integrated Neighbourhood Approach (INA) creates a supportive environment for the frail elderly, ...

    Authors: Jane M Cramm, Hanna van Dijk, Freek Lötters, Job van Exel and Anna P Nieboer

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:532

    Content type: Project Note

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  24. Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke, which can cause sudden death in adulthood. In general, the clinical manifestations of cardiovascular diseases are caused by a...

    Authors: Manoel ES Modelli, Áurea S Cherulli, Lenora Gandolfi and Riccardo Pratesi

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:531

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Rotator cuff tendon tear is a leading cause for atrophy, fibrosis and fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff muscles. The pathophysiology of fatty muscle infiltration is not well understood. An animal model su...

    Authors: Mazda Farshad, Carola C Würgler-Hauri, Thomas Kohler, Christian Gerber and Dominique A Rothenfluh

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:530

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Establishment of the health impact of hypertension on quality of life of Nigerians is a step towards controlling the disease. The study aimed to provide a Nigerian specific reference list of utility scores of ...

    Authors: Obinna I Ekwunife, Cletus N Aguwa, Maxwell O Adibe, Ebenezer Barikpaoar and Chioma J Onwuka

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:528

    Content type: Short Report

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  27. Studies intending to measure drug-induced changes in learning and memory are challenged to parse out the effects of drugs on sensory, motor, and associative systems in the brain. In the context of conditioned ...

    Authors: Gina N Wilson, Orion R Biesan, Jennifer L Remus and G Andrew Mickley

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:527

    Content type: Short Report

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  28. Brucellosis in livestock causes enormous losses for economies of developing countries and poses a severe health risk to consumers of dairy products. Little information is known especially on camel brucellosis ...

    Authors: Mayada M Gwida, Adel H El-Gohary, Falk Melzer, Herbert Tomaso, Uwe Rösler, Ulrich Wernery, Renate Wernery, Mandy C Elschner, Iahtasham Khan, Meike Eickhoff, Daniel Schöner and Heinrich Neubauer

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:525

    Content type: Short Report

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  29. To study late-life depression and its unfavourable course and co morbidities in The Netherlands.

    Authors: Hannie C Comijs, Harm W van Marwijk, Roos C van der Mast, Paul Naarding, Richard C Oude Voshaar, Aartjan TF Beekman, Marjolein Boshuisen, Janny Dekker, Rob Kok, Margot WM de Waal, Brenda WJH Penninx, Max L Stek and Johannes H Smit

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:524

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Urochloa humidicola is a forage grass that grows in tropical regions and is recognized for its tolerance to seasonal flooding. It is a polyploid and apomictic species with high phenotypic plasticity. As molecular...

    Authors: Bianca BZ Vigna, Guilherme C Alleoni, Leticia Jungmann, Cacilda B do Valle and Anete P de Souza

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:523

    Content type: Short Report

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  31. Escherichia coli, the main bacteria found in recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), is now frequently resistant to several currently used antibiotic treatments making new solutions essential. In this study, we...

    Authors: Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Xavier Vitrac, Louis Bernard, Franck Bruyère and Albert Sotto

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:522

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The genetic code consists of non-random usage of synonymous codons for the same amino acids, termed codon bias or codon usage. Codon juxtaposition is also non-random, referred to as codon context bias or codon...

    Authors: Immanuel Leifer, Dirk Hoeper, Sandra Blome, Martin Beer and Nicolas Ruggli

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:521

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Anxiety and depression have been identified as a common psychological distress faced by the majority of cancer patients. With the increasing number of cancer cases, increasing demands will be placed on health ...

    Authors: Rama K Rajandram, Samuel MY Ho, Nabil Samman, Natalie Chan, Colman McGrath and Roger A Zwahlen

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:519

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Gene expression studies are a prerequisite for understanding the biological function of genes. Because of its high sensitivity and easy use, quantitative PCR (qPCR) has become the gold standard for gene expres...

    Authors: Maik Klie and Thomas Debener

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:518

    Content type: Research article

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  35. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulatory molecules that play an important role in many physiological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition to modulating normal cellular functio...

    Authors: Eugene D Ponomarev, Tatiana Veremeyko and Natasha S Barteneva

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:517

    Content type: Short Report

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  36. The endangered snow leopard is found throughout major mountain ranges of Central Asia, including the remote Himalayas. However, because of their elusive behavior, sparse distribution, and poor access to their ...

    Authors: Dibesh B Karmacharya, Kamal Thapa, Rinjan Shrestha, Maheshwar Dhakal and Jan E Janecka

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:516

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recognized as a metabolic disorder largely seen in urbanized populations. The purpose of this study was to assess prevalence and risk factors for NAFLD in a rural, ...

    Authors: M Janani Pinidiyapathirage, Anuradha S Dassanayake, Shaman Rajindrajith, Udaya Kalubowila, Norihiro Kato, A Rajitha Wickremasinghe and H Janaka de Silva

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:513

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity l...

    Authors: Kazunori Ohkawara, Kazuko Ishikawa-Takata, Jong Hoon Park, Izumi Tabata and Shigeho Tanaka

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:512

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Co-administration of anti-tuberculosis and antiretroviral therapy is often inevitable in high-burden countries where tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS. Concurrent...

    Authors: Hadija H Semvua and Gibson S Kibiki

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:511

    Content type: Hypothesis

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  40. The response of the NarQP two-component signal transduction system regulon in response to the presence of nitrate for the bovine pathogen Mannheimia haemolytica A1 was investigated by proteomic analysis. Total pr...

    Authors: Ichiro Inamoto and Reggie Lo

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:510

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Qualitative studies are particularly valued for their exploratory nature but, like other research methods, they do require careful planning to ensure rigorous study design. Our objective was to undertake a pil...

    Authors: Renée Otmar, Mark A Kotowicz, Geoffrey C Nicholson and Julie A Pasco

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:508

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Malaria remains a major public health problem, especially in tropical and subtropical regions because of the emergence and widespread of antimalarial drug resistance. Traditional medicine represents one potent...

    Authors: Jean Bernard Lekana-Douki, Sandrine Lydie Oyegue Liabagui, Jean Bernard Bongui, Rafika Zatra, Jacques Lebibi and Fousseyni S Toure-Ndouo

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:506

    Content type: Short Report

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