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  1. Transmission of the prion disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) occurred accidentally to cattle and several other mammalian species via feed supplemented with meat and bone meal contaminated with infe...

    Authors: Jo Moore, Stephen AC Hawkins, Anthony R Austin, Timm Konold, Robert B Green, Ian W Blamire, Ian Dexter, Michael J Stack, Melanie J Chaplin, Jan PM Langeveld, Marion M Simmons, Yvonne I Spencer, Paul R Webb, Michael Dawson and Gerald AH Wells

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:501

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined as a group of breast carcinomas that are negative for expression of hormone receptors (ER, PR) and Her2, we can distinguish between two groups: basal-like (ER-, ...

    Authors: Yousra Akasbi, Sanae Bennis, Fouad Abbass, Kawtar Znati, Khalid Amrani Joutei, Afaf Amarti and Omar EL Mesbahi

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:500

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Studies of nuclear function in many organisms, especially those with tough cell walls, are limited by lack of availability of simple, economical methods for large-scale preparation of clean, undamaged nuclei.

    Authors: Robert M Givens, Larry D Mesner, Joyce L Hamlin, Michael J Buck and Joel A Huberman

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:499

    Content type: Technical Note

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  4. Although histopathological grading systems for disc degeneration are frequently used in research, they are not yet integrated into daily care routine pathology of surgical samples. Therefore, data on histopath...

    Authors: Christoph Weiler, Mercedes Lopez-Ramos, H Michael Mayer, Andreas Korge, Christoph J Siepe, Karin Wuertz, Veronique Weiler, Norbert Boos and Andreas G Nerlich

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:497

    Content type: Research article

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  5. In recent years waterpipe smoking has become a popular practice amongst young adults in eastern Mediterranean countries, including Iran. The aim of this study was to assess waterpipe smoking perceptions and pr...

    Authors: Nasim Ghafouri, Jan D Hirsch, Gholamreza Heydari, Candis M Morello, Grace M Kuo and Renu F Singh

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:496

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Up-regulation of S100A7 (Psoriasin), a small calcium-binding protein, is associated with the development of several types of carcinomas, but its function and possibility to serve as a diagnostic or prognostic ...

    Authors: Manuela R Barbieri, Camillo DC Andrade, Wilson A Silva Jr, Adriana A Marques, Andréia M Leopoldino, Marlise BA Montes, Marcelo Dias-Baruffi, Iberê C Soares, Alda Wakamatsu, Venâncio AF Alves, Hélen J Laure, Marco A Zago and Lewis J Greene

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:494

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) directly limit the effective ingress of fungal pathogens by inhibiting cell wall-degrading endopolygalacturonases (ePGs). Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing...

    Authors: Erik Alexandersson, John VW Becker, Dan Jacobson, Eric Nguema-Ona, Cobus Steyn, Katherine J Denby and Melané A Vivier

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:493

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Self medication with antibiotics has become an important factor driving antibiotic resistance. This study investigated the period prevalence, patterns of use, and socio-demographic factors associated with self...

    Authors: Aris Widayati, Sri Suryawati, Charlotte de Crespigny and Janet E Hiller

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:491

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most common muscle dystrophy in adults. The disease is caused by a triplet expansion in the 3'end of the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) gene. In order to develop a...

    Authors: Jan Larsen, Olof J Pettersson, Maria Jakobsen, Rune Thomsen, Christina B Pedersen, Jens M Hertz, Niels Gregersen, Thomas J Corydon and Thomas G Jensen

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:490

    Content type: Short Report

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  10. The def mutant pea (Pisum sativum L) showed non-abscission of seeds from the funicule. Here we present data on seed development and growth pattern and their relationship in predicting this particular trait in wil...

    Authors: Kwadwo Owusu Ayeh, YeonKyeong Lee, Mike J Ambrose and Anne Kathrine Hvoslef-Eide

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:489

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Bergström needle biopsy is widely used to sample skeletal muscle in order to study cell signaling directly in human tissue. Consequences of the biopsy protocol design on muscle protein quantity and quality rem...

    Authors: Marc-André Caron, Steve J Charette, François Maltais and Richard Debigaré

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:488

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Toxicity is a complex phenomenon involving the potential adverse effect on a range of biological functions. Predicting toxicity involves using a combination of experimental data (endpoints) and computational m...

    Authors: Egon L Willighagen, Nina Jeliazkova, Barry Hardy, Roland C Grafström and Ola Spjuth

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:487

    Content type: Short Report

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  13. In the cancer of the esophagus, with recent technologic advances, self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) are at the forefront of the armamentarium for re-establishing luminal patency. Weighed against the numerous ...

    Authors: Valter N Felix, Alaor Caetano, Jose P Cipullo, Emiliano C Almodova, Wagner Colaiacovo and Aldenir F Zamboti

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:486

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Burn injuries constitute a major public health problem and are the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is paucity of published data on childhood burn injuries in Tanzania, parti...

    Authors: Phillipo L Chalya, Joseph B Mabula, Ramesh M Dass, Geofrey Giiti, Alphonce B Chandika, Emmanuel S Kanumba and Japhet M Gilyoma

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:485

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Teso sub-region of Eastern Uganda had superior indices of childhood survival during the period 1959 to 1969 compared to the national average. We analysed the reasons that could explain this situation with a vi...

    Authors: Fred Nuwaha, Juliet Babirye, Olico Okui and Natal Ayiga

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:484

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The structure of health care in Greece is receiving increased attention to improve its cost-effectiveness. We sought to examine the epidemiological characteristics of patients presenting to the vascular emerge...

    Authors: Ioannis Kotsikoris, Theofanis T Papas, Nikolaos Papanas, Dimitrios Maras, Paraskevi Tsiantula, Polyvios Pavlidis, Maria Andrikopoulou, Stamatia Kotsiou, Efstratios Maltezos and Nikolaos Bessias

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:481

    Content type: Research article

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  17. General Internal Medicine (GIM) has recently been approved as a subspecialty by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. As such, there is a need to define areas of knowledge that a General Inte...

    Authors: Sharon E Card, Anne M PausJenssen and Rachel C Ottenbreit

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:480

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Ertapenem is a once-daily broad spectrum carbapenem that is increasingly used to treat polymicrobial osteomyelitis due to diabetic foot and traumatic wound infections. However, limited data exists on ertapenem...

    Authors: Neela D Goswami, Melissa D Johnson and Vivian H Chu

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:478

    Content type: Short Report

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  19. Senescence is an important developmental process that leads to the cell death through highly regulated genetically controlled processes in plants. Biotic and abiotic Oxidative stresses can also artificially in...

    Authors: Hatami Gigloo Sedigheh, Mahdi Mortazavian, Dariush Norouzian, Mohammad Atyabi, Azim Akbarzadeh, Keyvan Hasanpoor and Masoud Ghorbani

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:477

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Missense mutations in three different genes encoding amyloid-β precursor protein, presenilin 1 and presenilin 2 are recognized to cause familial early-onset Alzheimer disease. Also duplications of the amyloid ...

    Authors: Håkan Thonberg, Marie Fallström, Jenny Björkström, Jacqueline Schoumans, Inger Nennesmo and Caroline Graff

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:476

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is complicated by the increased presence of sputum smear negative tuberculosis. Diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary...

    Authors: Hedwiga F Swai, Ferdinand M Mugusi and Jessie K Mbwambo

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:475

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Bovine dialyzable leukocyte extract (bDLE) is derived from immune leukocytes obtained from bovine spleen. DLE has demonstrated to reduce transcription of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) and inactiv...

    Authors: Humberto H Lara, Liliana Ixtepan-Turrent, Elsa N Garza-Treviño, Jose I Badillo-Almaraz and Cristina Rodriguez-Padilla

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:474

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Diarrheal diseases are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing world. Understanding the etiologic agents of diarrheal diseases and their association with socio-demographic characteristics of ...

    Authors: Kahsay Huruy, Afework Kassu, Andargachew Mulu, Netsanet Worku, Teshome Fetene, Simon Gebretsadik, Fantahun Biadglegne, Yeshambel Belyhun, Abebe Muche, Aschalew Gelaw, Belay Anagaw, Sisay Yifru, Yemataw Wondie, Assegedech Bekele, Moges Tiruneh, Dieter Reissig…

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:472

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Mechanical forces are known to alter the expression of genes, but it has so far not been reported whether they may influence the fidelity of nucleus-based processes. One experimental approach permitting to add...

    Authors: Michael Uhl, Kevin Mellert, Britta Striegl, Martin Deibler, Markus Lamla, Joachim P Spatz, Ralf Kemkemer and Dieter Kaufmann

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:470

    Content type: Short Report

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  25. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Esophagus is one of the most common malignancies in both men and women in eastern and south-eastern Africa. In Kenya, clinical observations suggest that this cancer is frequent in th...

    Authors: Kirtika Patel, Simeon Mining, Johnston Wakhisi, Tarik Gheit, Massimo Tommasino, Ghislaine Martel-Planche, Pierre Hainaut and Behnoush Abedi-Ardekani

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:469

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. The basic clinical problem associated with infection treatment is the fact that classic, commonly and routinely used isolation and identification methods are based on long-term processes of a phenotypic analys...

    Authors: Jacek Szeliga, Marek Jackowski, Ewa Kłodzińska, Bogusław Buszewski and Wojciech Kupczyk

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:467

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Orthopoxviruses, including variola virus, vaccinia virus, and monkeypox virus, have previously been documented in humans in West Africa, however, no cases of human orthopoxvirus infection have been reported in...

    Authors: Adam MacNeil, Jason Abel, Mary G Reynolds, RR Lash, Richard Fonnie, Lansana D Kanneh, Willie Robert, Victor K Lungay, Augustine Goba, Lina M Moses, Inger K Damon, Kevin Karem and Daniel G Bausch

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:465

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on:

  28. The spread of insecticide resistance in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae is a serious threat for current vector control strategies which rely on the use of insecticides. Two mutations at position 1014 of t...

    Authors: Philippe Nwane, Josiane Etang, Mouhamadou Chouaїbou, Jean Claude Toto, Rémy Mimpfoundi and Frédéric Simard

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:463

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Cellular constituents such as proteins, DNA, and RNA form a complex web of interactions that regulate biochemical homeostasis and determine the dynamic cellular response to external stimuli. It follows that de...

    Authors: Ignat Drozdov, Christos A Ouzounis, Ajay M Shah and Sophia Tsoka

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:462

    Content type: Technical Note

    Published on:

  30. The objective of this trial was to compare the blood-pressure lowering efficacy of amlodipine/losartan combination with amlodipine monotherapy after 6 weeks of treatment in Korean patients with stage 2 hyperte...

    Authors: Sung-Hae Kim, Kyu-Hyung Ryu, Nam-Ho Lee, Jin-Ho Kang, Woo-Shik Kim, Sang-Weon Park, Hae-Young Lee, Jae-Joong Kim, Young-Keun Ahn and Soon-Yong Suh

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:461

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. Few studies have investigated the periodontal condition among Rheumatoid arthritis in Sudan. The present study described the periodontal condition among Sudanese patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis an...

    Authors: Safa K Abdelsalam, Nada T Hashim, Emitithal M Elsalamabi and Bakri G Gismalla

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:460

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Plant defensins are an important component of the innate defence system of plants where they form protective antimicrobial barriers between tissue types of plant organs as well as around seeds. These peptides ...

    Authors: Abré de Beer and Melané A Vivier

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:459

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) kills bacteria and other organisms as part of the innate immune response. When nitrite is exposed to low pH, NO is generated and has been used as an NO delivery system to treat ski...

    Authors: Anthony D Ormerod, Amjad AJ Shah, Hong Li, Nigel B Benjamin, Gail P Ferguson and Carlo Leifert

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:458

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on:

  34. The sensitivity of the PCR reaction makes it ideal for use when identifying potentially novel viral infections in human disease. Unfortunately, this same sensitivity also leaves this popular technique open to ...

    Authors: Dean J Bacich, Kathryn M Sobek, Jessica L Cummings, Allison A Atwood and Denise S O'Keefe

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:457

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on:

  35. Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with infertility in cows. In bulls, this mollicute colonizes the prepuce and distal portion of the urethra and may infect sperm cells. The aim of this study is to analyze i...

    Authors: Melissa Buzinhani, Maurício Yamaguti, Rosângela C Oliveira, Beatriz A Cortez, Lucas Miranda Marques, Gláucia M Machado-Santelli, Mayra EO Assumpção and Jorge Timenetsky

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:455

    Content type: Short Report

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  36. The quantity of microarray data available on the Internet has grown dramatically over the past years and now represents millions of Euros worth of underused information. One way to use this data is through co-...

    Authors: Raphaël Helaers, Eric Bareke, Bertrand De Meulder, Michael Pierre, Sophie Depiereux, Naji Habra and Eric Depiereux

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:452

    Content type: Technical Note

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  37. Fresh coconut (Cocos nucifera L) water is a clear, sterile, colourless, slightly acidic and naturally flavoured drink, mostly consumed in tropical areas. It is a rich source of nutrients and has been used for med...

    Authors: Adolf K Awua, Edna D Doe and Rebecca Agyare

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:451

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. The period immediately after release from custody is a time of marked vulnerability and increased risk of death for ex-prisoners. Despite this, there is currently no routine, national system for monitoring ex-...

    Authors: Jessica Y Andrews, Simon Forsyth, Jessica Wade and Stuart A Kinner

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:450

    Content type: Short Report

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