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  1. Anxiety and depression have been identified as a common psychological distress faced by the majority of cancer patients. With the increasing number of cancer cases, increasing demands will be placed on health ...

    Authors: Rama K Rajandram, Samuel MY Ho, Nabil Samman, Natalie Chan, Colman McGrath and Roger A Zwahlen

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:519

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Gene expression studies are a prerequisite for understanding the biological function of genes. Because of its high sensitivity and easy use, quantitative PCR (qPCR) has become the gold standard for gene expres...

    Authors: Maik Klie and Thomas Debener

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:518

    Content type: Research article

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  3. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulatory molecules that play an important role in many physiological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition to modulating normal cellular functio...

    Authors: Eugene D Ponomarev, Tatiana Veremeyko and Natasha S Barteneva

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:517

    Content type: Short Report

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  4. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recognized as a metabolic disorder largely seen in urbanized populations. The purpose of this study was to assess prevalence and risk factors for NAFLD in a rural, ...

    Authors: M Janani Pinidiyapathirage, Anuradha S Dassanayake, Shaman Rajindrajith, Udaya Kalubowila, Norihiro Kato, A Rajitha Wickremasinghe and H Janaka de Silva

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:513

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity l...

    Authors: Kazunori Ohkawara, Kazuko Ishikawa-Takata, Jong Hoon Park, Izumi Tabata and Shigeho Tanaka

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:512

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Co-administration of anti-tuberculosis and antiretroviral therapy is often inevitable in high-burden countries where tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS. Concurrent...

    Authors: Hadija H Semvua and Gibson S Kibiki

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:511

    Content type: Hypothesis

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  7. The response of the NarQP two-component signal transduction system regulon in response to the presence of nitrate for the bovine pathogen Mannheimia haemolytica A1 was investigated by proteomic analysis. Total pr...

    Authors: Ichiro Inamoto and Reggie Lo

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:510

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Qualitative studies are particularly valued for their exploratory nature but, like other research methods, they do require careful planning to ensure rigorous study design. Our objective was to undertake a pil...

    Authors: Renée Otmar, Mark A Kotowicz, Geoffrey C Nicholson and Julie A Pasco

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:508

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Obesity is an important public health problem in Australia, and monitoring the nutritional intake of the population is an important endeavour. One way to assess food habits is via Food Frequency Questionnaires...

    Authors: Alison M Daly, Jacqueline E Parsons, Nerissa A Wood, Tiffany K Gill and Anne W Taylor

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:507

    Content type: Short Report

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  10. Malaria remains a major public health problem, especially in tropical and subtropical regions because of the emergence and widespread of antimalarial drug resistance. Traditional medicine represents one potent...

    Authors: Jean Bernard Lekana-Douki, Sandrine Lydie Oyegue Liabagui, Jean Bernard Bongui, Rafika Zatra, Jacques Lebibi and Fousseyni S Toure-Ndouo

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:506

    Content type: Short Report

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  11. The first case of HIV in Ethiopia was reported in 1984. Since then, HIV/AIDS has become a major public health concern in the country, leading the Government of Ethiopia to declare a public health emergency in ...

    Authors: Yitayal Shiferaw, Agersew Alemu, Amanuel Girma, Afera Getahun, Andarge Kassa, Alemayehu Gashaw, Abebe Alemu, Takele Teklu and Baye Gelaw

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:505

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Tuberculosis is a contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), affecting more than two billion people around the globe and is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the developing...

    Authors: Vinita Periwal, Jinuraj K Rajappan, Abdul UC Jaleel and Vinod Scaria

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:504

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Low environmental air quality is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity and this question is now emerging as a main concern of governmental authorities. Airborne pollution results from the combination ...

    Authors: Cécile Duclairoir Poc, Anne Groboillot, Olivier Lesouhaitier, Jean-Paul Morin, Nicole Orange and Marc JG Feuilloley

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:503

    Content type: Technical Note

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  14. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) from mustard is cytotoxic; however the mechanism of its toxicity is unknown. We examined the effects of AITC on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression in Caenorhabditis elegans. We als...

    Authors: AkalRachna K Saini, Robert T Tyler, Youn Young Shim and Martin JT Reaney

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:502

    Content type: Short Report

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  15. Transmission of the prion disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) occurred accidentally to cattle and several other mammalian species via feed supplemented with meat and bone meal contaminated with infe...

    Authors: Jo Moore, Stephen AC Hawkins, Anthony R Austin, Timm Konold, Robert B Green, Ian W Blamire, Ian Dexter, Michael J Stack, Melanie J Chaplin, Jan PM Langeveld, Marion M Simmons, Yvonne I Spencer, Paul R Webb, Michael Dawson and Gerald AH Wells

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:501

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined as a group of breast carcinomas that are negative for expression of hormone receptors (ER, PR) and Her2, we can distinguish between two groups: basal-like (ER-, ...

    Authors: Yousra Akasbi, Sanae Bennis, Fouad Abbass, Kawtar Znati, Khalid Amrani Joutei, Afaf Amarti and Omar EL Mesbahi

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:500

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Studies of nuclear function in many organisms, especially those with tough cell walls, are limited by lack of availability of simple, economical methods for large-scale preparation of clean, undamaged nuclei.

    Authors: Robert M Givens, Larry D Mesner, Joyce L Hamlin, Michael J Buck and Joel A Huberman

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:499

    Content type: Technical Note

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  18. Although histopathological grading systems for disc degeneration are frequently used in research, they are not yet integrated into daily care routine pathology of surgical samples. Therefore, data on histopath...

    Authors: Christoph Weiler, Mercedes Lopez-Ramos, H Michael Mayer, Andreas Korge, Christoph J Siepe, Karin Wuertz, Veronique Weiler, Norbert Boos and Andreas G Nerlich

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:497

    Content type: Research article

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  19. In recent years waterpipe smoking has become a popular practice amongst young adults in eastern Mediterranean countries, including Iran. The aim of this study was to assess waterpipe smoking perceptions and pr...

    Authors: Nasim Ghafouri, Jan D Hirsch, Gholamreza Heydari, Candis M Morello, Grace M Kuo and Renu F Singh

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:496

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Up-regulation of S100A7 (Psoriasin), a small calcium-binding protein, is associated with the development of several types of carcinomas, but its function and possibility to serve as a diagnostic or prognostic ...

    Authors: Manuela R Barbieri, Camillo DC Andrade, Wilson A Silva Jr, Adriana A Marques, Andréia M Leopoldino, Marlise BA Montes, Marcelo Dias-Baruffi, Iberê C Soares, Alda Wakamatsu, Venâncio AF Alves, Hélen J Laure, Marco A Zago and Lewis J Greene

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:494

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) directly limit the effective ingress of fungal pathogens by inhibiting cell wall-degrading endopolygalacturonases (ePGs). Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing...

    Authors: Erik Alexandersson, John VW Becker, Dan Jacobson, Eric Nguema-Ona, Cobus Steyn, Katherine J Denby and Melané A Vivier

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:493

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Self medication with antibiotics has become an important factor driving antibiotic resistance. This study investigated the period prevalence, patterns of use, and socio-demographic factors associated with self...

    Authors: Aris Widayati, Sri Suryawati, Charlotte de Crespigny and Janet E Hiller

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:491

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most common muscle dystrophy in adults. The disease is caused by a triplet expansion in the 3'end of the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) gene. In order to develop a...

    Authors: Jan Larsen, Olof J Pettersson, Maria Jakobsen, Rune Thomsen, Christina B Pedersen, Jens M Hertz, Niels Gregersen, Thomas J Corydon and Thomas G Jensen

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:490

    Content type: Short Report

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  24. The def mutant pea (Pisum sativum L) showed non-abscission of seeds from the funicule. Here we present data on seed development and growth pattern and their relationship in predicting this particular trait in wil...

    Authors: Kwadwo Owusu Ayeh, YeonKyeong Lee, Mike J Ambrose and Anne Kathrine Hvoslef-Eide

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:489

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Bergström needle biopsy is widely used to sample skeletal muscle in order to study cell signaling directly in human tissue. Consequences of the biopsy protocol design on muscle protein quantity and quality rem...

    Authors: Marc-André Caron, Steve J Charette, François Maltais and Richard Debigaré

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:488

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Toxicity is a complex phenomenon involving the potential adverse effect on a range of biological functions. Predicting toxicity involves using a combination of experimental data (endpoints) and computational m...

    Authors: Egon L Willighagen, Nina Jeliazkova, Barry Hardy, Roland C Grafström and Ola Spjuth

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:487

    Content type: Short Report

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  27. In the cancer of the esophagus, with recent technologic advances, self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) are at the forefront of the armamentarium for re-establishing luminal patency. Weighed against the numerous ...

    Authors: Valter N Felix, Alaor Caetano, Jose P Cipullo, Emiliano C Almodova, Wagner Colaiacovo and Aldenir F Zamboti

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:486

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Burn injuries constitute a major public health problem and are the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is paucity of published data on childhood burn injuries in Tanzania, parti...

    Authors: Phillipo L Chalya, Joseph B Mabula, Ramesh M Dass, Geofrey Giiti, Alphonce B Chandika, Emmanuel S Kanumba and Japhet M Gilyoma

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:485

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Teso sub-region of Eastern Uganda had superior indices of childhood survival during the period 1959 to 1969 compared to the national average. We analysed the reasons that could explain this situation with a vi...

    Authors: Fred Nuwaha, Juliet Babirye, Olico Okui and Natal Ayiga

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:484

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The structure of health care in Greece is receiving increased attention to improve its cost-effectiveness. We sought to examine the epidemiological characteristics of patients presenting to the vascular emerge...

    Authors: Ioannis Kotsikoris, Theofanis T Papas, Nikolaos Papanas, Dimitrios Maras, Paraskevi Tsiantula, Polyvios Pavlidis, Maria Andrikopoulou, Stamatia Kotsiou, Efstratios Maltezos and Nikolaos Bessias

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:481

    Content type: Research article

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  31. General Internal Medicine (GIM) has recently been approved as a subspecialty by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. As such, there is a need to define areas of knowledge that a General Inte...

    Authors: Sharon E Card, Anne M PausJenssen and Rachel C Ottenbreit

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:480

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Ertapenem is a once-daily broad spectrum carbapenem that is increasingly used to treat polymicrobial osteomyelitis due to diabetic foot and traumatic wound infections. However, limited data exists on ertapenem...

    Authors: Neela D Goswami, Melissa D Johnson and Vivian H Chu

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:478

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on:

  33. Senescence is an important developmental process that leads to the cell death through highly regulated genetically controlled processes in plants. Biotic and abiotic Oxidative stresses can also artificially in...

    Authors: Hatami Gigloo Sedigheh, Mahdi Mortazavian, Dariush Norouzian, Mohammad Atyabi, Azim Akbarzadeh, Keyvan Hasanpoor and Masoud Ghorbani

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:477

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Missense mutations in three different genes encoding amyloid-β precursor protein, presenilin 1 and presenilin 2 are recognized to cause familial early-onset Alzheimer disease. Also duplications of the amyloid ...

    Authors: Håkan Thonberg, Marie Fallström, Jenny Björkström, Jacqueline Schoumans, Inger Nennesmo and Caroline Graff

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:476

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is complicated by the increased presence of sputum smear negative tuberculosis. Diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary...

    Authors: Hedwiga F Swai, Ferdinand M Mugusi and Jessie K Mbwambo

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:475

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Bovine dialyzable leukocyte extract (bDLE) is derived from immune leukocytes obtained from bovine spleen. DLE has demonstrated to reduce transcription of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) and inactiv...

    Authors: Humberto H Lara, Liliana Ixtepan-Turrent, Elsa N Garza-Treviño, Jose I Badillo-Almaraz and Cristina Rodriguez-Padilla

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:474

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Mechanical forces are known to alter the expression of genes, but it has so far not been reported whether they may influence the fidelity of nucleus-based processes. One experimental approach permitting to add...

    Authors: Michael Uhl, Kevin Mellert, Britta Striegl, Martin Deibler, Markus Lamla, Joachim P Spatz, Ralf Kemkemer and Dieter Kaufmann

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:470

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on:

  38. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Esophagus is one of the most common malignancies in both men and women in eastern and south-eastern Africa. In Kenya, clinical observations suggest that this cancer is frequent in th...

    Authors: Kirtika Patel, Simeon Mining, Johnston Wakhisi, Tarik Gheit, Massimo Tommasino, Ghislaine Martel-Planche, Pierre Hainaut and Behnoush Abedi-Ardekani

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:469

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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