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  1. The spread of insecticide resistance in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae is a serious threat for current vector control strategies which rely on the use of insecticides. Two mutations at position 1014 of t...

    Authors: Philippe Nwane, Josiane Etang, Mouhamadou Chouaїbou, Jean Claude Toto, Rémy Mimpfoundi and Frédéric Simard

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:463

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Plant defensins are an important component of the innate defence system of plants where they form protective antimicrobial barriers between tissue types of plant organs as well as around seeds. These peptides ...

    Authors: Abré de Beer and Melané A Vivier

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:459

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) kills bacteria and other organisms as part of the innate immune response. When nitrite is exposed to low pH, NO is generated and has been used as an NO delivery system to treat ski...

    Authors: Anthony D Ormerod, Amjad AJ Shah, Hong Li, Nigel B Benjamin, Gail P Ferguson and Carlo Leifert

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:458

    Content type: Short Report

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  4. The sensitivity of the PCR reaction makes it ideal for use when identifying potentially novel viral infections in human disease. Unfortunately, this same sensitivity also leaves this popular technique open to ...

    Authors: Dean J Bacich, Kathryn M Sobek, Jessica L Cummings, Allison A Atwood and Denise S O'Keefe

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:457

    Content type: Short Report

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  5. Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with infertility in cows. In bulls, this mollicute colonizes the prepuce and distal portion of the urethra and may infect sperm cells. The aim of this study is to analyze i...

    Authors: Melissa Buzinhani, Maurício Yamaguti, Rosângela C Oliveira, Beatriz A Cortez, Lucas Miranda Marques, Gláucia M Machado-Santelli, Mayra EO Assumpção and Jorge Timenetsky

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:455

    Content type: Short Report

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  6. To explore chitin synthesis initiation, the effect of addition of exogenous oligosaccharides on in vitro chitin synthesis was studied. Oligosaccharides of various natures and lengths were added to a chitin syntha...

    Authors: Hubert F Becker, Annie Piffeteau and Annie Thellend

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:454

    Content type: Short Report

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  7. Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are a major source of infections associated with indwelling medical devices. Many antiseptic agents are used in hygienic handwash to prevent nosoc...

    Authors: Tarek Zmantar, Bochra Kouidhi, Hanene Miladi and Amina Bakhrouf

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:453

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The quantity of microarray data available on the Internet has grown dramatically over the past years and now represents millions of Euros worth of underused information. One way to use this data is through co-...

    Authors: Raphaël Helaers, Eric Bareke, Bertrand De Meulder, Michael Pierre, Sophie Depiereux, Naji Habra and Eric Depiereux

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:452

    Content type: Technical Note

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  9. Fresh coconut (Cocos nucifera L) water is a clear, sterile, colourless, slightly acidic and naturally flavoured drink, mostly consumed in tropical areas. It is a rich source of nutrients and has been used for med...

    Authors: Adolf K Awua, Edna D Doe and Rebecca Agyare

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:451

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The period immediately after release from custody is a time of marked vulnerability and increased risk of death for ex-prisoners. Despite this, there is currently no routine, national system for monitoring ex-...

    Authors: Jessica Y Andrews, Simon Forsyth, Jessica Wade and Stuart A Kinner

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:450

    Content type: Short Report

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  11. Although otorrhea occurs commonly in HIV-infected infants, there are few data. We compared the incidence of otorrhea in infants receiving early vs deferred ART in the C hildren with H IV E arly Antir etroviral (C...

    Authors: Clotilde Hainline, Reghana Taliep, Gill Sorour, Sharon Nachman, Helena Rabie, Els Dobbels, Anita Janse van Rensburg, Morna Cornell, Avy Violari, Shabir A Madhi and Mark F Cotton

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:448

    Content type: Short Report

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  12. The ORF6 protein is one of the eight accessory proteins of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Numerous properties of ORF6 have been documented and this study focuses on two of these,...

    Authors: Vithiagaran Gunalan, Ali Mirazimi and Yee-Joo Tan

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:446

    Content type: Research article

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  13. AUTODOCK Vina is an open-source program which is steadfast and authentic to perform docking simulations. Though, Auto Dock Tools can help perform docking simulations with Vina, it largely remains as a platform...

    Authors: Gaddam Sandeep, Kurre Purna Nagasree, Muppaneni Hanisha and Muthyala Murali Krishna Kumar

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:445

    Content type: Technical Note

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  14. The purpose of this study was compare of daily iron supplementation in three time frames- daily, weekly and three time weekly supplementation in preventing anemia in healthy pregnant women.

    Authors: Zinatossadat Bouzari, Zahra Basirat, Mahtab Zeinal Zadeh, Shahla Yazdani Cherati, Maryam Didehdar Ardebil, Maedeh Mohammadnetaj and Shahnaz Barat

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:444

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The murine air pouch membrane represents an easily accessible tissue for studies on gene regulation in acute inflammation. Considering that acute inflammation may affect expression of molecular reference genes...

    Authors: Cristina Della Beffa, Frank Klawonn, Joseph P Menetski, H Ralph Schumacher Jr and Frank Pessler

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:443

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Gene expression analysis using real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is increasingly important in biological research due to the high-throughput and accuracy of qRT-PCR. For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis...

    Authors: Muhammad Jasim Uddin, Mehmet Ulas Cinar, Dawit Tesfaye, Christian Looft, Ernst Tholen and Karl Schellander

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:441

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The polymorphism 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) c.1298A>C is associated with various diseases. 45 DNA samples homozygous for the A allele and 40 DNA probes homozygous for the C allele were ta...

    Authors: Alexander Semmler, Susanna Moskau, Holger Lutz, Peter Meyer and Michael Linnebank

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:439

    Content type: Short Report

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  18. Isolation of RNA from skin biopsies presents a challenge, due to the tough nature of skin tissue and a high presence of RNases. As we lacked the dedicated equipment, i.e. homogenizer or bead-beater, needed for...

    Authors: Oskar Bruning, Wendy Rodenburg, Teodora Radonic, Aeilko H Zwinderman, Annemieke de Vries, Timo M Breit and Mark de Jong

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:438

    Content type: Technical Note

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  19. Symbiobacterium toebii is a commensal symbiotic thermophile that absolutely requires its partner bacterium Geobacillus toebii for growth. Despite development of an independent cultivation method using cell-free e...

    Authors: Kwang Kim, Joong-Jae Kim, Ryoji Masui, Seiki Kuramitsu and Moon-Hee Sung

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:437

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for the detection of known mutations has facilitated detecting specific red blood cell (RBC) enzyme deficiencies. We carried out a study on gluc...

    Authors: Soad K Al-Jaouni, Jummanah Jarullah, Essam Azhar and Kamran Moradkhani

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:436

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Acute kidney injury has been recognized as a major contributor to end stage renal disease. Although neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (Ngal) has been reported as a promising biomarker for early detect...

    Authors: Constantine N Antonopoulos, Alexandros Kalkanis, Georgios Georgakopoulos, Theodoros N Sergentanis and Dimitrios N Rigopoulos

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:435

    Content type: Short Report

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  22. Infection risks vary among individuals and between populations. Here we present information on the seroprevalence of 13 common infectious agents in a San Antonio-based sample of Mexican Americans. Mexican Amer...

    Authors: Rohina Rubicz, Charles T Leach, Ellen Kraig, Nikhil V Dhurandhar, Barry Grubbs, John Blangero, Robert Yolken and Harald HH Göring

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:433

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue is regularly employed in the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) by immunohistochemistry (IHC), the standard by which all other TSE diagnostic p...

    Authors: Eric M Nicholson, Justin J Greenlee and Amir N Hamir

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:432

    Content type: Short Report

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  24. Variation in food supply during early development can influence growth rate and body size in many species. However, whilst the detrimental effects of food restriction have often been studied in natural populat...

    Authors: Ian R Cleasby, Terry Burke, Julia Schroeder and Shinichi Nakagawa

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:431

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Abstractor training is a key element in creating valid and reliable data collection procedures. The choice between in-person vs. remote or simultaneous vs. sequential abstractor training has considerable conse...

    Authors: Chantal C Avila, Virginia P Quinn, Ann M Geiger, Tessa J Kerby, Meaghan St Charles and Kerri M Clough-Gorr

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:430

    Content type: Short Report

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  26. Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis among young children in Spain and worldwide. We evaluated hospitalizations due to community and hospital-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) a...

    Authors: Alberto L García-Basteiro, Anna Bosch, Elisa Sicuri, José M Bayas, Antoni Trilla and Edward B Hayes

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:429

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Porphyra yezoensis Ueda is one of the most important edible seaweed, with a dimorphic life cycle which consists of gametophyte as macroscopical blade and sporophyte as microscopic filamentous. Conspicuous differe...

    Authors: Songdong Shen, Gaochuan Zhang, Yanyan Li, Li Wang, Pu Xu and Lefei Yi

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:428

    Content type: Short Report

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  28. The choice of reliable reference genes is a prerequisite for valid results when analyzing gene expression with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). This method is frequently applied to study gene expression patt...

    Authors: Carola Ledderose, Jens Heyn, Elisabeth Limbeck and Simone Kreth

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:427

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Developments in DNA resequencing microarrays include mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing and mutation detection. Failure by the microarray to identify a base, compared to the reference sequence, is designated...

    Authors: Mazin A Zamzami, Gareth R Price, Robert W Taylor, Emma L Blakely, Iulia Oancea, Francis Bowling and John A Duley

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:426

    Content type: Technical Note

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  30. The Airtraq® optical laryngoscope (Prodol Ltd., Vizcaya, Spain) is a novel disposable device facilitating tracheal intubation in routine and difficult airway patients. No data investigating routine tracheal intub...

    Authors: Gereon Schälte, Ulrike Scheid, Steffen Rex, Mark Coburn, Britta Fiedler, Rolf Rossaint and Norbert Zoremba

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:425

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Laboratory assays are needed for early stage non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) that can link molecular and clinical heterogeneity to predict relapse after surgical resection. We technically validated two miRNA ass...

    Authors: Jesper Dahlgaard, Wiktor Mazin, Thomas Jensen, Mette Pøhl, Wiam Bshara, Anker Hansen, Eric Kanisto, Stephen Jacques Hamilton-Dutoit, Olfred Hansen, Henrik Hager, Henrik J Ditzel, Sai Yendamuri and Steen Knudsen

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:424

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms to the species level is important for diagnostic, therapeutic and epidemiologic perspectives. Indeed, isolates are routinely identified as belong...

    Authors: Imen Ben Kahla, Mireille Henry, Jalel Boukadida and Michel Drancourt

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:423

    Content type: Technical Note

    Published on:

  33. Although motor deficits are gaining attention in autism research much less attention has been paid to the physical activity patterns in this group of children. The participants in this study were a group of ch...

    Authors: Megan MacDonald, Phil Esposito and Dale Ulrich

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:422

    Content type: Short Report

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  34. To carry out a time and motion study of patients presenting at the Emergency Department (ED) by measuring waiting times at the ED dept throughout the day. The objectives were:

    Authors: Matthias Azzopardi, Marija Cauchi, Karl Cutajar, Robert Ellul, Charles Mallia-Azzopardi and Victor Grech

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:421

    Content type: Research article

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  35. FLP recombinase mediated integration into a pre-integrated FRT site is routinely used to generate highly reproducible stable transgenic cell lines. In this study, we broaden the system of site specific integra...

    Authors: Christoph Waldner, Olga Rempel, Fabian Schütte, Mert Yanik, Natalie Solomentsew and Gerhart U Ryffel

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:420

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The pancreas has dual functions as a digestive organ and as an endocrine organ, by secreting digestive enzymes and endocrine hormones. Some early studies have revealed that serum amylase levels are lower in in...

    Authors: Kei Nakajima, Toshitaka Muneyuki, Hiromi Munakata and Masafumi Kakei

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:419

    Content type: Correspondence

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  37. Clinical reasoning plays a major role in the ability of doctors to make a diagnosis and reach treatment decisions. This paper describes the use of four clinical reasoning tests in the second National Medical S...

    Authors: Mitra Amini, Mohsen Moghadami, Javad Kojuri, Hamidreza Abbasi, Ali Arhami Doolat Abadi, Nezar Ali Molaee, Elham Pishbin, Hamid Reza Javadzade, Vahid Monsef Kasmaee, Hasan Vakili, Mohamad Ali Reis Sadat, Roghaye Akbari, Bita Omidvar, Afshin Shafaghi, Marzie Dehbozorgian, Mohammad Morad Jafari…

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:418

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. The increasing migration of health professionals to affluent countries is not a recent phenomenon and has been addressed in literature. However the various facets of physician migration from Pakistan, the thir...

    Authors: Nazish Imran, Zahra Azeem, Imran I Haider, Naeem Amjad and Muhammad R Bhatti

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:417

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Most of the empirical studies that support the efficacy of prolonged exposure (PE) for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been conducted on white mainstream English-speaking populations. Althou...

    Authors: Mildred Vera, María L Reyes-Rabanillo, Deborah Juarbe, Coralee Pérez-Pedrogo, Alicia Olmo, Rafael Kichic and William F Chaplin

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:415

    Content type: Research article

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  40. For practical and financial reasons, self-reported instead of measured height and weight are often used. The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity of self-reports and to identify potential predictors o...

    Authors: Anna-Kristin Brettschneider, Angelika Schaffrath Rosario and Ute Ellert

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:414

    Content type: Short Report

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  41. In modern life science research it is very important to have an efficient management of high throughput primary lab data. To realise such an efficient management, four main aspects have to be handled: (I) long...

    Authors: Christian Colmsee, Steffen Flemming, Matthias Klapperstück, Matthias Lange and Uwe Scholz

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:413

    Content type: Technical Note

    Published on:

  42. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a serious health problem in developing countries and is also increasingly reported in industrialized regions. HEV is considered a zoonotic agent and strains isolated from s...

    Authors: Nereida Jiménez de Oya, Ignacio de Blas, Ana-Belén Blázquez, Miguel A Martín-Acebes, Nabil Halaihel, Olivia Gironés, Juan-Carlos Saiz and Estela Escribano-Romero

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:412

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) is a powerful technique capable of accurately quantitating mRNA expression levels over a large dynamic range. This makes qPCR the most widely used method for studying quant...

    Authors: Alexandre S Stephens, Sebastien R Stephens and Nigel A Morrison

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2011 4:410

    Content type: Technical Note

    Published on:

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