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  1. The integration of information present in many disparate biological databases represents a major challenge in biomedical research. To define the problems and needs, and to explore strategies for database integ...

    Authors: Michael Gruenberger, Rudi Alberts, Damian Smedley, Morris Swertz, Paul Schofield and Klaus Schughart

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2010 3:16

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. RNA-binding proteins of the PUF family share a conserved domain consisting of tandemly repeated 36-40 amino acid motifs (typically eight) known as Puf repeats. Proteins containing tandem repeats are often domi...

    Authors: Cristina Folgueira, Marta Martínez-Bonet and Jose M Requena

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2010 3:13

    Content type: Short Report

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  3. 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) is an enigmatic enzyme specifically expressed at high levels in the vertebrate myelin sheath, whose function and physiological substrates are unknown. The ...

    Authors: Matti Myllykoski and Petri Kursula

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2010 3:12

    Content type: Short Report

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  4. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a major cause of morbidity and a leading contributor to mortality worldwide. Over the next 2 decades, it is projected that there will be a rise in CVD mortality rates in th...

    Authors: Mahmoud U Sani, Kolawole W Wahab, Bashir O Yusuf, Maruf Gbadamosi, Omolara V Johnson and Akeem Gbadamosi

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2010 3:11

    Content type: Short Report

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  5. Gene-list annotations are critical for researchers to explore the complex relationships between genes and functionalities. Currently, the annotations of a gene list are usually summarized by a table or a barpl...

    Authors: Gang Feng, Pan Du, Nancy L Krett, Michael Tessel, Steven Rosen, Warren A Kibbe and Simon M Lin

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2010 3:10

    Content type: Technical Note

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  6. The isolation of intact RNA can be very difficult when tissues are used that contain many RNAses or that are hard to homogenize, e.g. cartilage samples. Additionally, cartilaginous tissues are characterized by...

    Authors: Anke Ruettger, Steffi Neumann, Bernd Wiederanders and René Huber

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2010 3:7

    Content type: Technical Note

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  7. Studies on the epidemiology of African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) rarely consider the spatial dimension of disease prevalence. This problem is confounded by use of parasitological diagnostic methods of low s...

    Authors: Samuel M Thumbi, Joseph O Jung'a, Reuben O Mosi and Francis A McOdimba

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2010 3:6

    Content type: Short Report

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  8. The regulatory mechanisms of the expression of connective tissue growth factor/CCN family member 2 (CTGF/CCN2) in human articular chondrocytes have not been clarified. We investigated the effect of prostagland...

    Authors: Kayo Masuko, Minako Murata, Kazuo Yudoh, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Moroe Beppu, Hiroshi Nakamura and Tomohiro Kato

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2010 3:5

    Content type: Short Report

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  9. The extracellular deposition of aggregated amyloid β-protein is a neuropathological manifestation of Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome. The Amyloid β-protein is derived from a group of larger differentially ...

    Authors: Alexander A Vostrov, Michael J Taheny, Nerik Izkhakov and Wolfgang W Quitschke

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2010 3:4

    Content type: Short Report

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  10. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have substantially increased the sequence output while the costs were dramatically reduced. In addition to the use in whole genome sequencing, the 454 GS-FLX platf...

    Authors: Ram Vinay Pandey, Viola Nolte and Christian Schlötterer

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2010 3:3

    Content type: Technical Note

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  11. Delayed maternal reporting of decreased fetal movement (DFM) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Inconsistent information on fetal activity to women during the antenatal period may result in delayed...

    Authors: Eli Saastad, Julie Victoria Holm Tveit, Vicki Flenady, Babill Stray-Pedersen, Ruth C Fretts, Per E Børdahl and J Frederik Frøen

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2010 3:2

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Species identification and antifungal susceptibility tests were carried out on 212 Candida isolates obtained from bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections and dialysis-associated peritonitis, from cases a...

    Authors: Ariane Bruder-Nascimento, Carlos Henrique Camargo, Maria Fátima Sugizaki, Terue Sadatsune, Augusto Cezar Montelli, Alessandro Lia Mondelli and Eduardo Bagagli

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2010 3:1

    Content type: Short Report

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  13. To determine the ocular changes related to hypothyrodism in newly diagnosed patients without orbitopathy.

    Authors: Banu T Ozturk, Hurkan Kerimoglu, Oguz Dikbas, Hamiyet Pekel and Mustafa S Gonen

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:266

    Content type: Short Report

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  14. Continuing medical education (CME) is an integral part of continuing professional development and a prerequisite for good quality in health care. We aimed to describe and analyse the number of days spent in fo...

    Authors: Arja Helin-Salmivaara, Mira Kajantie, Jukka Vänskä, Hannu Halila, Taina Autti, Juha P Turunen and Amos Pasternack

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:265

    Content type: Short Report

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  15. Reference genes are used as internal standards to normalize mRNA abundance in quantitative real-time PCR and thereby allow a direct comparison between samples. So far most of these expression studies used huma...

    Authors: Jan Axtner and Simone Sommer

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:264

    Content type: Project Note

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  16. "Examinations drive students' learning." This statement refers to what is assumed to be one of the strongest relationships in education. We explored in this research how and why students differ in their approa...

    Authors: Hanan MF Al Kadri, Mohamed S Al-Moamary and Cees van der Vleuten

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:263

    Content type: Short Report

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  17. Bacteria that belong to the genus Sphingobacterium are Gram-negative, non-fermentative bacilli, ubiquitous in nature and rarely involved in human infections. The aims of this study were to evaluate the epidemiolo...

    Authors: Antonietta Lambiase, Fabio Rossano, Mariassunta Del Pezzo, Valeria Raia, Angela Sepe, Fabiola de Gregorio and Maria Rosaria Catania

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:262

    Content type: Short Report

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  18. Bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus is endemic in most large commercial and smallholder cattle farms of Zimbabwe, while brucellosis in other domestic animals is rare. The diagnosis of brucellosis is mai...

    Authors: Gift Matope, Evison Bhebhe, John Bwalya Muma, Eystein Skjerve and Berit Djønne

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:261

    Content type: Short Report

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  19. Population-based association studies are used to identify common susceptibility variants for complex genetic traits. These studies are susceptible to confounding from unknown population substructure. Here we a...

    Authors: Jesse B Mez, John W Cole, Timothy D Howard, Leah R MacClellan, Oscar C Stine, Jeffery R O'Connell, Marcella A Wozniak, Barney J Stern, John D Sorkin, Braxton D Mitchell and Steven J Kittner

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:260

    Content type: Short Report

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  20. Progressive loss of articular cartilage is a central hallmark in many joint disease, however, the relative importance of individual proteolytic pathways leading to cartilage erosion is at present unknown. We t...

    Authors: Bijue Wang, Pingping Chen, Anne-Christine Bay Jensen, Morten A Karsdal, Suzi H Madsen, Bodil-Cecilie Sondergaard, Qinlong Zheng and Per Qvist

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:259

    Content type: Short Report

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  21. The economic importance of cereals such as barley, and the demand for improved yield and quality require a better understanding of the genetic components that modulate biologically and commercially relevant tr...

    Authors: Sven Gottwald, Petra Bauer, Takao Komatsuda, Udda Lundqvist and Nils Stein

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:258

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Inference of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) requires accurate data, a method to simulate the expression patterns and an efficient optimization algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters. Using this approach...

    Authors: Yves Fomekong-Nanfack, Marten Postma and Jaap A Kaandorp

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:256

    Content type: Short Report

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  23. The Cantabrian Coast horse breeds of the Iberian Peninsula have mainly black or bay colored coats, but alleles responsible for a chestnut coat color run in these breeds and occasionally, chestnut horses are bo...

    Authors: Fernando Rendo, Mikel Iriondo, Carmen Manzano and Andone Estonba

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:255

    Content type: Short Report

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  24. The basis for understanding the characteristics of gene functional categories in chicken has been enhanced by the ongoing sequencing of the zebra finch genome, the second bird species to be extensively sequenc...

    Authors: Tim Downing, Paul Cormican, Cliona O'Farrelly, Daniel G Bradley and Andrew T Lloyd

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:254

    Content type: Correspondence

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  25. Psychosocial support services are an important component of modern cancer treatment. A major challenge for all psychosocial services is the achievement of equity of use. Previous studies in the UK have found t...

    Authors: Donald M Sharp, Mary B Walker, Julie S Bateman, Fiona Braid, Claire Hebblewhite, Teresa Hope, Michael Lines, Andrew A Walker and Leslie G Walker

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:253

    Content type: Short Report

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  26. Medical students at the University of the West Indies receive clinical training by passing through a series of hospital rotations at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI). Many of these patients ar...

    Authors: Alan T Barnett, Shamir O Cawich, Ivor W Crandon, John F Lindo, Georgiana Gordon-Strachan, Diaqa Robinson and Deonne Ranglin

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:252

    Content type: Short Report

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  27. Ubiquitination plays a critical role in regulating many cellular processes, from DNA repair and gene transcription to cell cycle and apoptosis. It is catalyzed by a specific enzymatic cascade ultimately leadin...

    Authors: Insaf A Qureshi, Francois Ferron, Cheah Chen Seh, Peter Cheung and Julien Lescar

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:251

    Content type: Short Report

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  28. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) has become a very popular technique to study epigenetic regulation because it can be used to identify proteins and protein modifications present at specific locations in ch...

    Authors: Lata Balakrishnan and Barry Milavetz

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:250

    Content type: Short Report

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  29. Nucleic acid detection based on ligation reaction or single nucleotide extension of ssDNA probes followed by tag microarray hybridization provides an accurate and sensitive detection tool for various diagnosti...

    Authors: Jarmo Ritari, Lars Paulin, Jenni Hultman and Petri Auvinen

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:249

    Content type: Technical Note

    Published on:

  30. To conduct phylogeographic or population genetic studies, an adequate number of DNA markers for the focal species are required. Due to severe unavailability of genotype markers of any kind for the species Eura...

    Authors: Johannes Holmen, Leif A Vøllestad, Kjetill S Jakobsen and Craig R Primmer

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:248

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on:

  31. Application of reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is very well suited to reveal differences in gene expression between in vivo and in vitro produced embryos. Ultimately, this m...

    Authors: Katrien Smits, Karen Goossens, Ann Van Soom, Jan Govaere, Maarten Hoogewijs, Emilie Vanhaesebrouck, Cesare Galli, Silvia Colleoni, Jo Vandesompele and Luc Peelman

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:246

    Content type: Short Report

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  32. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) promoter polymorphisms at positions -597(G→A), -572(G→C) and -174(G→C) were shown to have a clinical impact on different major diseases. At present PCR-SSP protocols for IL-6 -597/-572/-174ha...

    Authors: Michael Müller-Steinhardt, Friederike Schulte, Harald Klüter and Peter Bugert

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:245

    Content type: Short Report

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  33. The first step in routine microbiology laboratory procedures is the collection and safe transportation of swab samples. This can be accomplished using ESwab Collection and Transport System (Copan Italia, Bresc...

    Authors: Carla Fontana, Marco Favaro, Dolores Limongi, Jana Pivonkova and Cartesio Favalli

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:244

    Content type: Technical Note

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  34. Medical emigration from developing to developed countries is a well established phenomenon of substantial importance. Though Libya is classified as an upper-middle income country, it has been affected by this ...

    Authors: Hani TS Benamer, Amin Bredan and Omran Bakoush

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:242

    Content type: Short Report

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  35. Bufonidae are a large family of toads with a subcosmopolitan distribution. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed a radiation of toads (Adenominae) with distinct adult and larval ecomorphs on the...

    Authors: SD Biju, Ines Van Bocxlaer, Varad B Giri, Simon P Loader and Franky Bossuyt

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:241

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on:

  36. Network and clustering analyses of microarray co-expression correlation data often require application of a threshold to discard small correlations, thus reducing computational demands and decreasing the numbe...

    Authors: Bhavesh R Borate, Elissa J Chesler, Michael A Langston, Arnold M Saxton and Brynn H Voy

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:240

    Content type: Short Report

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  37. The worldwide expanding Mycobacterium tuberculosis W-Beijing family is associated with treatment failure and relapse. Its identification currently relies on spoligotyping and conventional sequencing. We developed...

    Authors: Zoheira Djelouadji, Mireille Henry, Amine Bachtarzi, Nadège Foselle, Didier Raoult and Michel Drancourt

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:239

    Content type: Technical Note

    Published on:

  38. Cervical cancer is one of the most important cancers in African women. Polymorphisms in the Fas (FasR) and Fas ligand (FasL) genes have been reported to be associated with cervical cancer in certain population...

    Authors: Koushik Chatterjee, Malin Engelmark, Ulf Gyllensten, Collet Dandara, Lize van der Merwe, Ushma Galal, Margaret Hoffman and Anna-Lise Williamson

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:238

    Content type: Short Report

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  39. Thyroid function changes during pregnancy and maternal thyroid dysfunction have been associated with adverse outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate thyroid hormones levels in pregnant women resident in Aragon, Spain.

    Authors: Julia Pilar Bocos-Terraz, Silvia Izquierdo-Álvarez, Jose Luís Bancalero-Flores, Rosa Álvarez-Lahuerta, Ana Aznar-Sauca, Elisabet Real-López, Raquel Ibáñez-Marco, Virgilio Bocanegra-García and Gildardo Rivera-Sánchez

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:237

    Content type: Short Report

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  40. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a widely utilized method for gene-expression analysis. However, insufficient material often compromises large-scale gene-expression studies. The aim of this...

    Authors: Joëlle Vermeulen, Stefaan Derveaux, Steve Lefever, Els De Smet, Katleen De Preter, Nurten Yigit, Anne De Paepe, Filip Pattyn, Frank Speleman and Jo Vandesompele

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:235

    Content type: Short Report

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  41. Recent evidence suggests erythropoietin (EPO) and the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) may play a direct role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Better characterization of the EPO-EPOR signaling system in...

    Authors: Shaival S Shah, Stephen H Tsang and Vinit B Mahajan

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:234

    Content type: Short Report

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  42. Paratuberculosis vaccination has been in use in some regions for many decades, but results have not been widely spread. A new Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) killed vaccine was studied in relati...

    Authors: Ramon A Juste, Marta Alonso-Hearn, Elena Molina, Marivi Geijo, Patricia Vazquez, Iker A Sevilla and Joseba M Garrido

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:233

    Content type: Short Report

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  43. Traumatic perforation of the tympanic membrane may be due to direct or indirect source. The aim of the study is to profile the various aetiologies of traumatic tympanic membrane perforation in Ilorin, north ce...

    Authors: Olushola A Afolabi, Shuaib K Aremu, Biodun S Alabi and S Segun-Busari

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:232

    Content type: Short Report

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  44. The zebrafish, Danio rerio, possesses the paralogous genes aplnra and aplnrb that are duplicates of an ancestral orthologue of the human APLNR gene encoding a G-protein coupled receptor that binds the peptide lig...

    Authors: Svanhild Nornes, Ben Tucker and Michael Lardelli

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:231

    Content type: Short Report

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