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  1. Oxygenases belong to the oxidoreductive group of enzymes (E.C. Class 1), which oxidize the substrates by transferring oxygen from molecular oxygen (O2) and utilize FAD/NADH/NADPH as the co-substrate. Oxygenases c...

    Authors: Pankaj K Arora, Manish Kumar, Archana Chauhan, Gajendra PS Raghava and Rakesh K Jain

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:67

    Content type: Data Note

    Published on:

  2. Activating mutations in the PIK3CA gene have been identified in a variety of human malignancies and are commonly detected in hotspot codons located in the helical and kinase domains in exons 9 and 20. Existing me...

    Authors: Carolyn D Hurst, Tahlita CM Zuiverloon, Christian Hafner, Ellen C Zwarthoff and Margaret A Knowles

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:66

    Content type: Technical Note

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  3. Cell-specific expression of a subset of Enhancer of split (E(spl)-C) genes in proneural clusters is mediated by synergistic interactions between bHLH A (b asic H elix-L oop-H elix A ctivator) and Notch-signalling...

    Authors: John W Cave, Li Xia and Michael A Caudy

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:65

    Content type: Short Report

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  4. Baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) has become a standard in recombinant protein production and virus-like particle preparation for numerous applications.

    Authors: Hanna-Riikka Kärkkäinen, Hanna P Lesch, Antti I Määttä, Pyry I Toivanen, Anssi J Mähönen, Miia M Roschier, Kari J Airenne, Olli H Laitinen and Seppo Ylä-Herttuala

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:63

    Content type: Technical Note

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  5. The purpose of this report is to assess the safety and efficacy of single lower pole access for multiple and branched renal calculi. A prospective non randomized clinical study included 26 patients with comple...

    Authors: Mahmoud M Shalaby, Medhat A Abdalla, Hassan A Aboul-Ella, Abdel-Monem A El-haggagy and Alaa A Abd-Elsayed

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:62

    Content type: Short Report

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  6. Dermatophytes are a group of closely related keratinophilic fungi that can invade keratinized humans and animals tissues such as skin, hair and nails causing dermatophytosis. They are an important cause of sup...

    Authors: Jaya Garg, Ragini Tilak, Atul Garg, Pradyot Prakash, Anil Kumar Gulati and Gopal Nath

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:60

    Content type: Short Report

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  7. The Runt DNA binding domain (Runx) defines a metazoan family of sequence-specific transcription factors with essential roles in animal ontogeny and stem cell based development. Depending on cis-regulatory context...

    Authors: Anthony J Robertson, Claire Larroux, Bernard M Degnan and James A Coffman

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:59

    Content type: Short Report

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  8. Fluorescent proteins such as GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein) and DsRED (Discosoma sp.Red Fluorescent Protein) are often used as reporter molecules for transgene expression in Drosophila and other species. We h...

    Authors: Dhruv Grover, Junsheng Yang, Daniel Ford, Simon Tavaré and John Tower

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:58

    Content type: Short Report

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  9. We analyzed the use of RefSNP (rs) numbers to identify genetic variants in abstracts of human genetic association studies published from 2001 through 2007. The proportion of abstracts reporting rs numbers incr...

    Authors: Wei Yu, Renée Ned, Anja Wulf, Tiebin Liu, Muin J Khoury and Marta Gwinn

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:56

    Content type: Correspondence

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  10. Asthma is a complex phenotype that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide linkage and association studies have been performed to identify susceptibility genes for asthma. These st...

    Authors: Yoshiko Imada, Masaya Fujimoto, Kenji Hirata, Tomomitsu Hirota, Yoichi Suzuki, Hirohisa Saito, Kenji Matsumoto, Akira Akazawa, Toshio Katsunuma, Shigemi Yoshihara, Motohiro Ebisawa, Masanao Shibasaki, Tadao Arinami, Mayumi Tamari and Emiko Noguchi

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:54

    Content type: Short Report

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  11. The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1 (NOD1) gene encodes a pattern recognition receptor that senses pathogens, leading to downstream responses characteristic of innate immunity. We investiga...

    Authors: Claudia Huebner, Lynnette R Ferguson, Dug Yeo Han, Martin Philpott, Murray L Barclay, Richard B Gearry, Alan McCulloch, Pieter S Demmers and Brian L Browning

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:52

    Content type: Short Report

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  12. Free-living amoebae serve as a natural reservoir for some bacteria that have evolved into «amoeba-resistant» bacteria. Among these, some are strictly intra-amoebal, such as Candidatus "Protochlamydia amoebophila"...

    Authors: Claire Moliner, Didier Raoult and Pierre-Edouard Fournier

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:51

    Content type: Short Report

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  13. Antimicrobial resistance is fast becoming a global concern with rapid increases in multidrug-resistant Gram negative organisms. The prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing clinical isol...

    Authors: Stephen E Mshana, Erasmus Kamugisha, Mariam Mirambo, Trinad Chakraborty and Eligius F Lyamuya

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:49

    Content type: Short Report

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  14. Whole genome amplification (WGA) is a practical solution to eliminate molecular analysis limitations associated with genomic DNA (gDNA) quantity. Different methods have been developed to amplify the whole geno...

    Authors: Osama Alsmadi, Fadi Alkayal, Dorota Monies and Brian F Meyer

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:48

    Content type: Short Report

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  15. The protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, is spread by the tsetse fly and causes Human African Trypanosomiasis. Its cell cycle is complex and not fully understood at the molecular level. The T. brucei genome co...

    Authors: Séverine Monnerat, Caroline Clucas, Elaine Brown, Jeremy C Mottram and Tansy C Hammarton

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:46

    Content type: Short Report

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  16. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP) are highly specific diagnostic and prognostic markers for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). They have been also found in psoriatic arthritis (PsA), with controversies as ...

    Authors: Nermeen SA Abdel Fattah, Hanan E Hassan, Zenab A Galal and El Sayed E El Okda

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:44

    Content type: Short Report

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  17. Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant (OAT) that needs active management to ensure therapeutic range. Initial management is often carried out as an inpatient, though not requiring inpatient facilities. This mismat...

    Authors: Dónall Forde, Mortimer B O'Connor and Oonagh Gilligan

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:41

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on:

  18. Nemaline myopathy is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by the presence of nemaline bodies in patient muscles. 20% of the cases are associated with α-skeletal muscle actin mutations. We previously showed t...

    Authors: Drieke Vandamme, Ellen Lambert, Davy Waterschoot, Davina Tondeleir, Joël Vandekerckhove, Laura M Machesky, Bruno Constantin, Heidi Rommelaere and Christophe Ampe

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:40

    Content type: Short Report

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  19. Currently one of the largest online repositories for human and mouse stem cell gene expression data, StemBase was first designed as a simple web-interface to DNA microarray data generated by the Canadian Stem ...

    Authors: Reatha Sandie, Gareth A Palidwor, Matthew R Huska, Christopher J Porter, Paul M Krzyzanowski, Enrique M Muro, Carolina Perez-Iratxeta and Miguel A Andrade-Navarro

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:39

    Content type: Technical Note

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  20. Achromobacter sp. AO22 (formerly Alcaligenes sp. AO22), a bacterial strain isolated from a lead-contaminated industrial site in Australia, was previously found to be resistant to moderate to high levels of mercur...

    Authors: Shee Ping Ng, Belinda Davis, Enzo A Palombo and Mrinal Bhave

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:38

    Content type: Short Report

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  21. Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases on citrus and is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter spp.. The pathogens are phloem limited and have not been cultured in vitro. The current ...

    Authors: Jeong-soon Kim and Nian Wang

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:37

    Content type: Short Report

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  22. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a multifunctional cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases including inflammatory neurological diseases. Its role in the pathogenesi...

    Authors: Vidhan Jain, Shannon McClintock, Avinash C Nagpal, Aditya P Dash, Jonathan K Stiles, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Neeru Singh and Naomi W Lucchi

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:36

    Content type: Short Report

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  23. Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by the contamination of wounds from bacteria that live in soil. The tetanus mortality rate remains high in developing countries affected by natural disasters. Whether th...

    Authors: Agung Budi Sutiono, Andri Qiantori, Hirohiko Suwa and Toshizumi Ohta

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:34

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on:

  24. Sequence information on the 16S-23S rDNA internal spacer region (ISR) exhibits a large degree of sequence and length variation at both the genus and species levels. A primer pair for the amplification of 16S-2...

    Authors: Akihiro Tazumi, Shinji Ono, Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, John E Moore, B Cherie Millar and Motoo Matsuda

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:33

    Content type: Short Report

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  25. The cytokines interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and the cytokine blocker interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, all have been demonstrated to enter the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following peripheral a...

    Authors: Edward L Tobinick, Kai Chen and Xiaoyuan Chen

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:28

    Content type: Short Report

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  26. Yusho an intoxication caused by oral dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls occurred in 1968. Patients suffered from various systemic symptoms, including general fatigue, nausea, muscular and articular pain, ac...

    Authors: Tomoaki Imamura, Shinya Matsumoto, Manabu Akahane, Yoshiyuki Kanagawa, Soichi Koike, Bunichi Tajima, Shiro Matsuya, Hiroshi Uchi, Satoko Shibata and Masutaka Furue

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:27

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on:

  27. Discriminating taxa with the nuclear marker, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) has been accomplished for various organisms in economic, ecological, and evolutionary studies. The protocol available ...

    Authors: Jessica A Wooten and Lori R Tolley-Jordan

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:26

    Content type: Short Report

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  28. Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is a life-threatening condition requiring immediate assessment and therapy. A patient suffering from AAD often presents with an insignificant or irrelevant medical history, giving...

    Authors: Irene Asouhidou and Theodora Asteri

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:25

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on:

  29. Genetic transformation of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae has been successfully achieved in recent years, and represents a potentially powerful tool for researchers. Tissue-, stage- and sex-specific promot...

    Authors: Fabrizio Lombardo, Gareth J Lycett, Alessandra Lanfrancotti, Mario Coluzzi and Bruno Arcà

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:24

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on:

  30. Large-scale genome-wide association studies are promising for unraveling the genetic basis of complex diseases. Population structure is a potential problem, the effects of which on genetic association studies ...

    Authors: Hongyan Xu, Bayazid Sarkar and Varghese George

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:21

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on:

  31. IFN-γ responses to M. tuberculosis antigens are used as in-vitro diagnostic tests for tuberculosis infection. The tests are highly specific but sensitivity may be impaired due to immuno-suppression. The objective...

    Authors: Morten Ruhwald, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Paulo Rabna, Jesper Eugen-Olsen and Pernille Ravn

    Citation: BMC Research Notes 2009 2:19

    Content type: Short Report

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