Characterization of the time course of changes of the evoked electrical activity in a model of a chemically-induced neuronal plasticity
© Torre et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2009
Received: 10 November 2008
Accepted: 27 January 2009
Published: 27 January 2009
Neuronal plasticity is initiated by transient elevations of neuronal networks activity leading to changes of synaptic properties and providing the basis for memory and learning . An increase of electrical activity can be caused by electrical stimulation  or by pharmacological manipulations: elevation of extracellular K+ , blockage of inhibitory pathways  or by an increase of second messengers intracellular concentrations . Neuronal plasticity is mediated by several biochemical pathways leading to the modulation of synaptic strength, density of ionic channels and morphological changes of neuronal arborisation . On a time scale of a few minutes, neuronal plasticity is mediated by local protein trafficking  while, in order to sustain modifications beyond 2–3 h, changes of gene expression are required .
In the present manuscript we analysed the time course of changes of the evoked electrical activity during neuronal plasticity and we correlated it with a transcriptional analysis of the underlying changes of gene expression. Our investigation shows that treatment for 30 min. with the GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine (GabT) causes a potentiation of the evoked electrical activity occurring 2–4 hours after GabT and the concomitant up-regulation of 342 genes. Inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway reduced but did not abolish the potentiation of the evoked response caused by GabT. In fact not all the genes analysed were blocked by ERK1/2 inhibitors.
These results are in agreement with the notion that neuronal plasticity is mediated by several distinct pathways working in unison.
Changes of the evoked response were quantified by computing the total number of evoked spikes in a time window of 100 ms from the stimulus onset, referred to as the network firing rate of the evoked response NFR. NFR significantly increased between 1 and 6 h after GabT (Fig. 1C, D): the evoked response was maximally potentiated 3 h after GabT and started to decline after 6 h, returning close to the control level 24 h after GabT.
Neuronal plasticity induced by GabT not only modified synaptic efficacy but also several other network properties such as speed and reliability of the evoked spikes. Speed was evaluated by measuring the latency of the evoked response i.e. the delay from the stimulus of the evoked spike, while reliability was measured by the standard deviation of the latency (jitter). In some experiments it was possible to identify spikes produced by the same neuron (Fig. 1E) and therefore we could measure how its latency and jitter changed during neuronal plasticity. The latency in control conditions from stimulus onset varied between 6 and 9 ms, was reduced by 2–3 ms after GabT and its jitter similarly decreased (Fig. 1F). We also analyzed how spikes propagated in the network by measuring the space constant λ (total number of evoked spikes as a function of the distance from the stimulus) of the evoked activity. Collected data from 4 cultures showed that λ increased by about 25 % within 1 h after GabT and remained larger than the control values up to 24 h (Fig. 1G). These results show that increase of synaptic efficacy by exposure to gabazine alone in the absence of a concomitant strong or tetanic electrical stimulation, potentiated the electrical response propagating in the culture, inducing in this way a form of LTP, which we refer to as medium time LTP (M-LTP) because it was not identified as maximal after gabazine removal, developed 1 hour after GabT and lasted about 6 hours. Therefore, M-LTP is likely to be associated not only to local protein trafficking but also to changes of gene expression, occurring on a time scale of some hours. In order to understand the molecular events underlying M-LTP, we have analysed changes of gene expression induced by the same pharmacological treatment, i.e. a 30 min. exposure to gabazine with Affymetrix microarrays (RAT 230_2.0 Gene Chip) (Broccard et al., manuscript in preparation). We have identified 342 genes significantly up-regulated at the same times as when the evoked electrical activity was potentiated. Nevertheless, because gene profiles were obtained from the whole culture, we could not identify the type of neurons where up-regulated genes were expressed. Many of these genes are well known players in LTP such as Bdnf and its receptor TrkB , Arc , Egr1  and Homer1 . We hypothesized that the large majority of identified genes underlies induction and maintenance of LTP and that their activation orchestrates neuronal plasticity. In fact, a search in the PuBMed database indicates that 40% of the 284 annotated genes is, or could be, involved in changes of synaptic strength related to LTP. 43 genes have already been implicated in LTP, 25 genes have been classified as Structural genes for their structural role in cellular function and their up-regulation could underlie structural and morphological changes associated to LTP. Analogously, the 25 Pre-synaptic and the 24 Post-synaptic genes found in our screening could mediate changes of synaptic properties occurring during LTP.
We analyzed with real-time PCR the effect of the ERK1/2 inhibitors on some of the LTP-related genes, up-regulated in our microarray screening: Egr1 ,Egr2 ,Egr3 ,Nr4a1 ,Bdnf ,Homer1a  and Arc . As shown in Figure 2D, the up-regulation induced by GabT of genes of the EGR family, Nr4a1 and Arc was significantly reduced and almost blocked by inhibitors of the ERK1/2 pathway, but not the up-regulation of Bdnf and Homer1a.
The results described in the present investigation show that when following GabT a potentiation of the evoked electrical activity occurs at medium times (M-LTP). This form of chemically induced LTP is expected to modify the great majority of synapses present in the network and therefore to affect its global properties. When LTP is induced by a local electrical stimulation, only a limited number of synapses are expected to be modified.
As shown in Fig. 2, potentiation of the M-LTP was reduced, but not eliminated by inhibitors of the ERK1/2 pathway, in agreement with the notion that neuronal plasticity is mediated by several distinct pathways likely to be working in unison. These results allowed us to relate changes of electrical properties occurring during neuronal plasticity to specific underlying molecular events.
The present analysis combining MEA and DNA microarrays represents a simple system to study neuronal plasticity , but does not allow to identify the cellular origin of detected changes of gene expression. Given the large abundance of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal cultures and acute slices it is likely that detected changes of gene expression occur in these neurons, but it is possible that they occur also in interneurons and in glial cells. In order to resolve this issue it will be necessary to perform single cell gene profiling in the intact hippocampus. Preliminary experiments performed in our laboratory in intact organotypic slices show that treatment with gabazine induces very similar changes of gene expression in dissociated cultures, as those here used and in neuronal slices preserving the original physiological connectivity.
Neuronal culture preparation
Hippocampal neurons dissociated from Wistar rats (P0–P2) were plated on polyorhitine/matrigel pre-coated MEA at a concentration of 8 × 105cells/cm2 and maintained in a neuron medium as previously described . After 48 h, 5 μM cytosine-β- D-arabinofuranoside (Ara-C) was added to the culture medium in order to block glial cell proliferation. Neuronal cultures were kept in an incubator providing a controlled level of CO2 (5%), temperature (37°C) and moisture (95%).
Electrical recordings and electrode stimulation
Multi electrode array (MEA) recordings were carried out with a MEA60 system (Multi Channel Systems, Reutlingen, Germany). Stimulations and recordings were carried out after 21–35 days in vitro. Synchronous network bursting was induced by 30 min. treatment with GABAA receptor antagonists, gabazine (20 μM). In some experiments, blockers of the ERK1/2 pathway (50 μM PD98059 and 20 μM U0126) were used. These drugs were pre-incubated before application of gabazine for 45 min. The voltage pulse was bipolar with a duration of 200 μsec. For a given culture, the same amplitude was used as before, during and after GabT. The pattern of stimulation consisted of a train of 40 bipolar pulses separated by an inter-pulse interval of 4s and applied to a bar of six neighbouring electrodes.
Acquired data were analyzed using MATLAB (The Mathworks, Inc.) as previously described [10, 19]. The network firing rate (NFR) is defined as the sum of all electrodes firing rates (i.e. the number of all spikes recorded in the network for each bin). The total number of spikes as a function of the distance d was fitted by the exponential function from which λ was obtained (inset Fig. 1G).
RNA (250 ng) was reverse transcribed using SuperScript II reverse transcriptase and random hexamer (Invitrogen, Milan, Italy). Real-time PCR was performed using iQ SYBR Green supermix (Biorad, Milan, Italy) and the iQ5 LightCycler. Gene specific primers were designed using Beacon Designer (Premier Biosoft, Palo Alto, CA, USA). The thermal cycling conditions comprised 3 min at 95°C, and 40 cycles of 10 seconds for denaturation at 95°C and 45 sec for annealing and extension at 58°C. The expression level of the target mRNA was normalized to the relative ratio of the expression of Gapdh mRNA. The forward primer for Gapdh was 5'-CAAGTTCAACGGCACAGTCAAGG-3', the reverse primer was 5'-ACATACTCAGCACCAGCATCACC-3'. Fold changes calculations were made between treated and untreated samples at each time point using the 2-ΔΔCTmethod. The forward primer for Egr1 was 5'-AAGGGGAGCCGAGCGAAC-3', the reverse primer was 5'-GAAGAGGTTGGAGGGTTGGTC-3'; forward primer for Egr2 was 5'-CTGCCTGACAGCCTCTACCC-3', reverse primer was 5'-ATGCCATCTCCAGCCACTCC-3'; forward primer for Egr3 was 5'-ACTCGGTAGCCCATTACACTCAG-3', reverse primer was 5'-GTAGGTCACGGTCTTGTTGCC-3'; forward primer for Nr4a1 was 5'-GGTAGTGTGCGAGAAGGATTGC-3', reverse primer was 5'-GGCTGGTTGCTGGTGTTCC-3'; forward primer for Arc was 5'-AGACTTCGGCTCCATGACTCAG-3', reverse primer was 5'-GGGACGGTGCTGGTGCTG-3'; forward primer for Homer1a was 5'-GTGTCCACAGAAGCCAGAGAGGG-3', reverse primer was 5'-CTTGTAGAGGACCCAGCTTCAGT-3'; forward primer for Bdnf was 5'-CGATTAGGTGGCTTCATAGGAGAC-3', reverse primer was 5'-GAAACAGAACGAACAGAAACAGAGG-3'.
multi electrodes array
long term potentiation
network firing rate
extracellular signal regulated
gamma amino butyric acid
local field potential
Thanks to M. Lough for critical reading of the manuscript and G. Pastore for preparing the cell cultures. This work was supported by the grant from CIPE (GRAND FVG), by EU projects: NEURO Contract n. 012788 (FP6-STREP, NEST) and NanoScale Contract n.214566 (FP7-NMP-2007-SMALL-1), and by the FIRB grant RBLA03AF28 007 from the Italian Ministry of Research (MIUR).
- Goelet P, Castellucci VF, Schacher S, Kandel ER: The long and the short of long-term memory – a molecular framework. Nature. 1986, 322: 419-22. 10.1038/322419a0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jimbo Y, Tateno T, Robinson HP: Simultaneous induction of pathway-specific potentiation and depression in networks of cortical neurons. Biophys J. 1999, 76: 670-8. 10.1016/S0006-3495(99)77234-6.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jensen MS, Yaari Y: Role of intrinsic burst firing, potassium accumulation, and electrical coupling in the elevated potassium model of hippocampal epilepsy. J Neurophysiol. 1997, 77: 1224-33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Arnold FJ, Hofman F, Bengston CP, Wittmann M, Vanhoutte P, Bading H: Microelectrode array recordings of cultured hippocampal networks reveal a simple model for transcription and protein synthesis-dependent plasticity. J Physiol. 2005, 564: 3-19. 10.1113/jphysiol.2004.077446.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Otmakhov N, Khibnik L, Otmakhova N, Carpenter S, Riahi S, Asrican B, Lisman J: Forskolin-induced LTP in the CA1 region of the hippocampus is NMDA receptor dependent. J Neurophysiol. 2004, 91: 1955-62. 10.1152/jn.00941.2003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carlisle HJ, Kennedy MB: Spine architecture and synaptic plasticity. Trends Neurosci. 2005, 28: 182-7. 10.1016/j.tins.2005.01.008.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Groc L, Choquet D: AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors trafficking: multiple roads for reaching and leaving the synapse. Cell Tissue Res. 2007, 326: 423-38. 10.1007/s00441-006-0254-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Martin SJ, Grimwood PD, Morris RG: Synaptic plasticity and memory: an evaluation of the hypothesis. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2000, 23: 649-711. 10.1146/annurev.neuro.23.1.649.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ruaro ME, Bonifazi P, Torre V: Towards the neurocomputer: image processing and pattern recognition with neuronal cultures. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2005, 52: 371-83. 10.1109/TBME.2004.842975.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bonifazi P, Ruaro ME, Torre V: Statistical properties of information processing in neuronal networks. Eur J Neurosci. 2005, 22: 2953-64. 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.04464.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Barco A, Patterson S, Alarcon JM, Gromova P, Mata-Roig M, Morozov A, Kandel ER: Gene expression profiling of facilitated L-LTP in VP16-CREB mice reveals that BDNF is critical for the maintenance of LTP and its synaptic capture. Neuron. 2005, 48: 123-37. 10.1016/j.neuron.2005.09.005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Messaoudi E, Kanhema T, Soulé J, Tiron A, Dagyte G, da Silva B, Bramham CR: Sustained Arc/Arg3.1 synthesis controls long-term potentiation consolidation through regulation of local actin polymerization in the dentate gyrus in vivo. J Neurosci. 2007, 27: 10445-55. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2883-07.2007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Davis S, Bozon B, Laroche S: How necessary is the activation of the immediate early gene zif268 in synaptic plasticity and learning?. Behav Brain Res. 2003, 142: 17-30. 10.1016/S0166-4328(02)00421-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hernandez PJ, Schlitz CA, Kelley AE: Dynamic shifts in corticostriatal expression patterns of the immediate early genes Homer 1a and Zif268 during early and late phases of instrumental training. Learn Mem. 2005, 13: 599-608. 10.1101/lm.335006.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Miyamoto E: Molecular mechanism of neuronal plasticity: induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. J Pharmacol Sci. 2006, 100: 433-42. 10.1254/jphs.CPJ06007X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Williams J, Dragunow M, Lawlor P, Mason S, Abraham WC, Leah J, Bravo R, Demmer J, Tate W: Krox20 may play a key role in the stabilization of long-term potentiation. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1995, 28: 87-93. 10.1016/0169-328X(94)00187-J.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li L, Yun SH, Keblesh J, Trommer BL, Xiong H, Radulovic J, Tourtellotte WG: Egr3, a synaptic activity regulated transcription factor that is essential for learning and memory. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2007, 35: 76-88. 10.1016/j.mcn.2007.02.004.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dragunow M, Abraham W, Hughes P: Activation of NMDA and muscarinic receptor induces nur-77 mRNA in hippocampal neurons. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1996, 36: 349-56. 10.1016/0169-328X(95)00294-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wagenaar DA, Potter SM: Real-time multi-channel stimulus artifact suppression by local curve fitting. J Neurosci Meth. 2002, 120: 113-20. 10.1016/S0165-0270(02)00149-8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar