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Table 1 Flavonoid IC50 values for growth inhibition of P. falciparum

From: Common dietary flavonoids inhibit the growth of the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite

Class Major food sources [17] Flavonoid Chemical substitutions/modifications In vitroantiplasmodial activity (IC50, μM)a LogD (pH 7.0)b
     3D7 7G8  
Flavonols Onions, kale, broccoli, apples, cherries, fennel, sorrel, berries, tea Kaempferol 3, 5, 7, 4' – OH 33 ± 7 25 ± 2 2.40
   Myricetin 3, 5, 7, 3', 4', 5' – OH 40 ± 10 76 ± 23 2.06
   Quercetin 3, 5, 7, 3', 4' – OH 15 ± 5 14 ± 1 2.09
   Isoquercitrin 3-gluc, 5, 7, 3', 4' – OH 66 ± 10 66 ± 18 1.59
Flavones Parsley, thyme, celery, sweet red pepper Acacetin 5, 7 – OH 4' – OCH3 > 100 13 ± 2 2.77
   Apigenin 5, 7, 4' – OH 20 ± 3 13 ± 2 2.77
   Baicalein 5, 6, 7 – OH 32 ± 1 21 ± 6 3.18
   Chrysin 5, 7 – OH 18 ± 3 22 ± 4 2.79
   Luteolin 5, 7, 3', 4' – OH 11 ± 1 12 ± 1 2.62
Flavanones Citrus fruits, prunes Naringenin 5, 7, 4' – OH, single bond between 2 and 3 > 125 71 ± 10 2.17
Isoflavones Legumes Genistein 5, 7, 4' – OH, B ring attached to 3 > 50 29 ± 5 1.53
Chloroquine NA NA NA 0.006 ± 0.0003 0.084 ± 0.026 ND
  1. a Values are the means (± S.E.M.) of results from three independent experiments, each performed in duplicate or triplicate. Parasite susceptibility was measured in 96-well plates over 96 h using the [3H]hypoxanthine incorporation assay [19]. b LogD (the octanol-water distribution coefficient) was predicted using PrologD (Pallas for Windows version 2.1, CompuDrug International Inc.). Good cell permeability requires a logD value of 2–5 [20]. NA, not applicable; ND, not determined.