Larval dbds express voltage gated Na+ channels. A) Typical Na+ current trace evoked by depolarizing voltage steps. B) Voltage clamp step protocol. Currents are evoked from voltage steps between -80 mV to +60 mV in increments of 10 mV. For clarity, 20 mV increments are shown in (A, B). The voltage step protocol is preceded by a -90 mV pre-pulse to remove any inactivating components. C) Normalized I-V relationship of I
. The channels begin activating between -50 and -40 mV and peak at -30 to -20 mV. Data plotted as mean ± SEM. External solution contains 4-AP (10 mM), TEA (50 mM) and 0 mM Ca2+. Internal solution contains cesium (5 mM).