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Table 1 Characteristics and delivery interventions (%) among the primiparous (n = 73,813) and multiparous women (n = 94,824) with singleton vaginal delivery in University Hospitals between 1997 and 2007 in Finland (Chi Square test/Kruskall Wallis test).

From: Up to seven-fold inter-hospital differences in obstetric anal sphincter injury rates- A birth register-based study in Finland

CHARACTERISTICS/INTERVENTIONS Hospital A Hospital B Hospital C Hospital D Hospital E p value Pooled
PRIMIPAROUS,
n = 73, 813
19, 185 12, 486 17, 749 15, 974 8, 419   
Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS), n (%) 147 (0.8) 127 (1.0) 193 (1.1) 343 (2.1) 56 (0.7) ≤0.001 1.2
Birth weight >4,000 g 13.2 12.6 13.0 13.4 11.7 0.002 12.9
Mean (± SD) length of active second stage of birth (min) 34 ± 31 32 ± 28 92 ± 76 74 ± 61 21 ± 18 ≤0.001 45 ± 48
Episiotomy 75.5 64.2 59.2 51.1 49.4 ≤0.001 61.4
Vacuum assistance 15.3 15.8 15.9 15.4 10.6 ≤0.001 15.0
Amniotomy 49.8 55.2 48.8 31.2 42.4 ≤0.001 45.6
Augmentation with oxytocin 75.5 65.2 49.7 53.8 37.7 ≤0.001 58.6
Epidural analgesia 62.7 65.7 64.3 78.6 73.7 ≤0.001 68.3
Paracervical block 29 24.1 1.0 6.3 10.7 ≤0.001 14.4
*Caesarean section 17.7 21.4 31.4 19.0 23.0 ≤0.001 22.9
MULTIPAROUS,
n = 94, 824
23, 746 21, 291 20, 628 18, 032 11, 127   
OASIS, n (%) 33 (0.1) 30 (0.1) 52 (0.3) 61 (0.3) 13 (0.1) ≤0.001 0.2
Birth weight >4000 g 24.3 22.3 21.7 24.0 22.2 ≤0.001 23.0
Mean (± SD)length of active second stage of birth (min) 11 ± 13 9 ± 12 36 ± 44 21 ± 28 11 ± 11 ≤0.001 13 ± 20
Episiotomy 15.2 8.6 20.4 6.5 10.3 ≤0.001 12.6
Vacuum assistance 2.5 2.0 2.6 2.1 1.9 ≤0.001 2.3
Amniotomy 53.6 60.0 52.3 34.9 43.9 ≤0.001 50.1
Augmentation with oxytocin 37.6 35.1 33.8 23.3 20.5 ≤0.001 31.5
Epidural analgesia 19.6 14.9 47.5 34.1 26.8 ≤0.001 28.2
Paracervical block 44.8 41.6 2.8 25.8 26.2 ≤0.001 29.2
*Caesarean section 8.0 9.5 15.7 8.8 12.1 ≤0.001 10.7
  1. *Cesarean section rates of each hospital are also given during the same period of time